Attention in the organization and development of grammar.
Our sentences about the world are organized to properly convey the constantly changing visual environment. This skill develops early in life. When fully developed, it entails constant, regular, and automatic mappings from elements of a visual scene onto sentence constituents and the grammatical relations between them. The visual system contributes initially to this process by providing perceptual information for conceptual and linguistic analysis but the perceptual information that enters the language production system is not organized indiscriminately. The attentional system filters information for processing based on its noticeability, importance, or relevance. This process allows representing salience parameters in linguistic output. Individual languages’ grammars have specific devices responsible for this representation.
It is well known, that even in optimal conditions animals and humans make spontaneous errors which are the most prominent manifestations of attention system failures. Our goal was to investigate the causes of attention system failures in normal state of arousal and without distracting objects. We have designed a new task which allows to answer the following question: which stage of sensory processing is compromised during attention lapses?
This article deals with metaphor studying in the light of cognitive linguistics. Metaphor modeling is used to research into metaphorization in English academic discourse in economics. The research focuses on the comparative analysis of metaphor at different levels of second language proficiency and professional competence.
The article proposes application of the level approach to attention research. Four basic principles of levelbased architecture of attention are derived from theoretical premises of the level approach to cognition and the psychology of attention as well as from empirical data. The author offers a variant of empirical research program which is based on the logic of the level approach. Finally the 5 level model of attention processes organization is proposed on the basis on experimental data. The article also contains examples of author's empirical studies which are interpreted in the level approach framework. The first study demonstrates the functioning of the redundancy principle (which is one the basic principles stated in study) in the visual inspection tasks. The second study shows the differences in the efficiency of memorizing the same material and the differences in experiencing of subjective confidence in mnemonic judgments depending on the leading level of attention in task solving.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
Distractor's effect (stimulus which is irrelevant at a certain moment and ignored) on task solving efficiency is considered. It is revealed that according to problem situation and connection with target stimulus any distractor can produce two opposite effects: negative - interference and positive - redundancy effect. Distractor effects' classification based on one of possible grounds - distractor's source: sensory inputs effects, hierarchical effects and correlational effects is given. Possibility of level-hierarchical relation between the three classes of effects is discussed.
Cognitive Linguistics offers an enticing possibility to approach time-honored linguistic problems from a new standpoint and view them in a new dimension. Proving this theory, all contributions in this volume are Slavic-oriented and thoroughly grounded in the framework of Cognitive Linguistics. The volume is composed of three thematic sections – grammar, semantics and discourse analysis with applied linguistics – representing fields of interest and simultaneously corresponding to levels of linguistic organization. The book offers studies on completability as an important parameter in the description of the Russian aspect system, application of Langacker’s theory of subjectification to the analysis of Russian perfective, interaction between aspect and modality in Slavic, morphological case architecture in Slovak, Czech dative-marked nominals, Russian instrumental of comparison, affirmation, possessive-locative constructions in Macedonian, lexical semantics, spoken discourse, metaphorical expressions in legal language and lexicography.