This book contains an in-depth overview of the current state of the recently emerged and rapidly growing theory of Gnk groups, picture-valued invariants, and braids for arbitrary manifolds. Equivalence relations arising in low-dimensional topology and combinatorial group theory inevitably lead to the study of invariants, and good invariants should be strong and apparent. An interesting case of such invariants is picture-valued invariants, whose values are not algebraic objects, but geometrical constructions, like graphs or polyhedra.
In 2015, V O Manturov defined a two-parametric family of groups Gnk and formulated the following principle: if dynamical systems describing a motion of n particles possess a nice codimension 1 property governed by exactly k particles then these dynamical systems possess topological invariants valued in Gnk.
The book is devoted to various realisations and generalisations of this principle in the broad sense. The groups Gnk have many epimorphisms onto free products of cyclic groups; hence, invariants constructed from them are powerful enough and easy to compare. However, this construction does not work when we try to deal with points on a 2-surface, since there may be infinitely many geodesics passing through two points. That leads to the notion of another family of groups — Γnk, which give rise to braids on arbitrary manifolds yielding invariants of arbitrary manifolds.
Topical Problems of Green Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering 2019 (TPACEE 2019)
We propose an efficient algorithm based on boundary operator equations for the numerical simulation of time-dependent waves in 3D. The algorithm employs the method of difference potentials combined with the (strong) Huygens’ principle (lacunae of the solution). It can handle nonconforming boundaries on regular structured grids with no loss of accuracy and offers sublinear computational complexity.
The writings of Thomas Robert Malthus continue to resonate today, particularly An Essay on the Principle of Population which was published more than two centuries ago. Malthus Across Nations creates a fascinating picture of the circulation of his economic and demographic ideas across different countries, highlighting the reception of his works in a variety of nations and cultures. This unique book offers not only a fascinating piece of comparative analysis in the history of economic thought but also places some of today’s most pressing debates into an accurate historical perspective, thereby improving our understanding of them. Providing a complex and multi-faceted analysis of the reception and dissemination of the works of Malthus, this book examines how his approach was misunderstood and distorted throughout his lifetime and beyond. It illuminates the different ways in which groups of actors, including laymen, politicians and experts, have reacted to his work in specific historical and intellectual contexts, and with particular theoretical, political and moral concerns. Detailed breakdowns of the main controversies over his work are also explored. An insightful read for scholars studying economics and history of economic thought, this book guides readers from Malthus’s original publications to their continuing impact today. This will also be a useful volume for ethics, political thought and intellectual history students.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
This book explores Russia’s efforts towards both adapting to and shaping a world in transformation. Russia has been largely marginalized in the post-Cold War era and has struggled to find its place in the world, which means that the chaotic changes in the world present Russia with both threats and opportunities. The rapid shift in the international distribution of power and emergence of a multipolar world disrupts the existing order, although it also enables Russia to diversify it partnerships and restore balance. Adapting to these changes involves restructuring its economy and evolving the foreign policy. The crises in liberalism, environmental degradation, and challenge to state sovereignty undermine political and economic stability while also widening Russia’s room for diplomatic maneuvering. This book analyzes how Russia interprets these developments and its ability to implement the appropriate responses.
Forest ecosystems, their products and services play an important role in achieving ambitious climate change mitigation objectives at the same time requiring profound adaptation to climate change. Forest management schemes to support climate action have to be developed within their regional context but also have to be aligned with national or EU-level climate, forest and sustainability policies. The conference on “Managing forests in the 21st century” is the final conference of the FORMASAM, REFORCE and FOREXCLIM research projects. The conference bringstogether scientific experts on forest management from all over Europe facing very specific management challenges. The aim isto discuss and improve the understanding the role of forests and forest management in the context of climate change. The conference addresses climate change impacts, as well as needs for mitigation and adaptation especially with regard to the following scientific questions: 1. What are the impacts of climate extremes and disturbances? 2. What are the management challenges (and options) for resilient forests? 3. What can we do to increase the contribution of forest management to climate change mitigation?
This concise book provides a survival toolkit for efficient, large-scale software development. Discussing a multi-contextual research framework that aims to harness human-related factors in order to improve flexibility, it includes a carefully selected blend of models, methods, practices, and case studies. To investigate mission-critical communication aspects in system engineering, it also examines diverse, i.e. cross-cultural and multinational, environments.
This book helps students better organize their knowledge bases, and presents conceptual frameworks, handy practices and case-based examples of agile development in diverse environments. Together with the authors’ previous books, "Crisis Management for Software Development and Knowledge Transfer" (2016) and "Managing Software Crisis: A Smart Way to Enterprise Agility" (2018), it constitutes a comprehensive reference resource that adds value to this book.
This book addresses the challenges and opportunities of contemporary and future development of Eurasia. The main theme of the first part of the book is examining the reaction evoked in different countries by the Chinese “Belt and Road Initiative.” The second part analyses other national and international integration and infrastructure projects in Eurasia. This unique publication brings together in one volume works by leading researchers from different countries, all united by their common interest in the political and economic processes unfolding in the Eurasian continent. By offering various points of view from experts from all over the world, this book provides a multi-dimensional analysis of the Eurasian future and will be of value to a wide range of readers, including scholars, publicists, the international business community and decision-makers.
The book is the result of an extensive research conducted by professors of five academic institutions from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - the BRICS countries. The purpose of this work is to analyze the anti-corruption and anti-money laundering legislation in each of these countries, showing the similarities and differencies in terms of domestic legal frames and the international guidelines.
This third edition of Moral Constraints on War offers a principle by principle presentation of the ethics of war as is found in the age-old tradition of the Just War. Parts one and two trace the evolution of Just War Theory, analyzing the principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello: the principles that determine the conditions under which it is just to start a war and then conduct military operations. Each chapter provides a historical background of the principle under discussion and an in-depth analysis of its meaning. More so than in the previous editions, there is a special focus on the transcultural nature of the principles. Besides theoretical clarifications, each of the principles is also put to the test with numerous historical and contemporary examples. In Part three, Just War Theory is applied in three specific case studies: the use of the atomic bomb against Japan in World War II, the Korean War (1950-53), and the use of armed drones in the "war on terror." Bringing together an international coterie of philosophers and political scientists, this accessible and practical guide offers both students of military ethics and of international relations rich, up-to-date insights into the pluralistic character of Just War Theory.
This is the third book in a series on Medieval Novgorod and its surroundings and deals with a substantial body of animal bones that have been recovered over the last decade. The zooarchaeological evidence is discussed by the editor and a number of English and Russian specialists who dug the site, looking at domestic exploitation of animals, diet, animal husbandry, and butchery practices. Detailed data sets are provided to enable the reader to make comparisons with their own research, but the book is also suitable for those with a more general interest in Medieval Russian archaeology.
This book discusses important topics for engineering and managing software startups, such as how technical and business aspects are related, which complications may arise and how they can be dealt with. It also addresses the use of scientific, engineering, and managerial approaches to successfully develop software products in startup companies. The book covers a wide range of software startup phenomena, and includes the knowledge, skills, and capabilities required for startup product development; team capacity and team roles; technical debt; minimal viable products; startup metrics; common pitfalls and patterns observed; as well as lessons learned from startups in Finland, Norway, Brazil, Russia and USA. All results are based on empirical findings, and the claims are backed by evidence and concrete observations, measurements and experiments from qualitative and quantitative research, as is common in empirical software engineering. The book helps entrepreneurs and practitioners to become aware of various phenomena, challenges, and practices that occur in real-world startups, and provides insights based on sound research methodologies presented in a simple and easy-to-read manner. It also allows students in business and engineering programs to learn about the important engineering concepts and technical building blocks of a software startup. It is also suitable for researchers at different levels in areas such as software and systems engineering, or information systems who are studying advanced topics related to software business.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks and Texts, AIST 2019, held in Kazan, Russia, in July 2019.
The 24 full papers and 10 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 134 submissions (of which 21 papers were rejected without being reviewed). The papers are organized in topical sections on general topics of data analysis; natural language processing; social network analysis; analysis of images and video; optimization problems on graphs and network structures; analysis of dynamic behaviour through event data.
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have recyclable antioxidative activity. It has numerous potential applications in biomedical engineering, such as mitigating damage from burns, radiation, and bacterial infection. This mitigating activity is analogous to that property of metabolic enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase - scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, nanoceria can protect cells from environmental oxidative stress. This therapeutic effect prompted studies of nanoceria and metabolic enzymes as a combination therapy. The activity and structure of SOD, catalase, and lysozyme were examined in the presence of nanoceria. A complementary relationship between SOD and nanoceria motivated the present work, in which we explored a method for simultaneous delivery of SOD and nanoceria. The biocompatibility and tunable degradation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) made it a candidate material for encapsulating both nanoceria and SOD. Cellular uptake studies were conducted along with a cytotoxicity assay. The antioxidative properties of PLGA-nanoceria-SOD particles were verified by adding H2O2 to cell culture and imaging with fluorescent markers of oxidative stress. Our results suggest that PLGA is a suitable encapsulating carrier for simultaneous delivering nanoceria and SOD together, and that this combination effectively reduces oxidative stress in vitro.
In this study, we test how the level of relative teacher wages affects educational outcomes. Russia provides a unique setting for testing this relationship given its high regional heterogeneity. We use two measures of educational outcomes at different levels of the school system. Our results show that the level of relative teacher wages has a significant positive effect on both test scores. Institutional reforms in teacher wage setting in Russia further allow us to estimate an instrumental variable model and difference-in-difference model, which confirm the robustness of our main result. We also provide some evidence on the possible channels of this effect.
The official method of measuring poverty in Russia is based on an absolute approach that uses an expertly calculated subsistence level as a poverty line. However, there is an ongoing debate about the possible use of other approaches to measuring poverty. This study focuses on identifying the relative ‘poverty line’ relevant to contemporary Russian society as a threshold of high poverty risk. Drawing on representative all-Russian surveys, the authors conclude that the relative poverty thresholds set at 0.5 and 0.75 times the median per capita family income identify different subgroups of the poor. A median threshold of 0.75 highlights poverty of the elderly, who are not considered to be poor by the absolute approach officially used in Russian statistics, but need attention in terms of social policy.
The paper describes a new form of investment attraction recently introduced in Russia—territories of outrunning socio- economic development (TOSEDs). These initiatives provide tax and other benefits to 20 territories in the Far East and to 90 cities in which a considerable number of jobs are concen- trated in a single factory (mono-cities). Using secondary sour- ces and interviews, we present the initial legislation for TOSEDs, the evolution of the initial legislation, and the func- tioning of TOSED residents. We also identify several opportuni- ties for foreign investors who have installed or intend to install their new manufacturing facilities in TOSEDs.
A model of the electric field enhanced thermal (thermo-field) emission of electrons from the metal cathode substrate into a thin insulating film on its surface is developed. A system of equations for the cathode surface temperature in the arc discharge and the electric field strength in the film, providing the required discharge current density, is formulated. It is shown that existence of the insulating film can result in a considerable reduction of the cathode temperature in the discharge due to lower potential barrier height at the metal-insulator boundary than at the metal-discharge boundary in case of the cathode without the film. It is found that due to an enhancement of the thermal emission of electrons into the film by the electric field generated in it, an additional decrease in the cathode temperature by about 100 K takes place.
One of the major targets of modern agri-food policy in Russia is a significant increase of agri-food exports — almost twice as much by 2024. In this projection, China is viewed as the most promising market. However, Russia’s entrance to the Chinese market faces a number of constraints. In addition to the standard difficulties associated with Russia’s agricultural and food exports (export infrastructure constraints, expensive logistics, and import bans on certain Russian products), there are fundamental constraints on supply to China in the long-term. This paper formulates a long-term view of the prospects of, and risks associated with, introducing Russian agricultural products into the Chinese market. Methodically, the paper is based on an evaluation of competitive performance by the conventional method of measuring a country’s comparative trade advantages with the Balassa index. Also the authors use trade statistics of Comtrade, Russian and Chinese national statistic agencies, estimates of international analytical centers such as World Bank, USDA, OECD, McKinsey.
Based on the obtained experimental data, a model is developed for the processes of a variation in the charge state of MIS (metal–insulator–semiconductor) structures under the concurrent influence of high-field tunneling electron injection and radiation. The model takes into account the interaction between injected electrons and charges appearing in the dielectric film due to radiation and high-field ionization. It is shown that some holes may be annihilated during the interaction between injected electrons and holes trapped in a SiO2 film, thus leading to the formation of surface states at the interface with silicon. The effect of the electric-field intensity and injection current density on the generation and annihilation of positive charge and the formation of surface states under radiation is studied. The effect of charge processes occurring in the insulator film of a MIS structure under the concurrent action of radiation and high-field electron injection on a change in the threshold voltage of MIS devices and radiation sensors based on them is considered.
It has been proved by the latest research on key performance indicators (KPIs) of transportation services that their successful implementation into practice is possible only if there is a thorough database of indicators and the methodology of their calculation. To reach these goals, it is necessary to classify the indicators within the framework of the system which includes the two levels: the basic (the first) and the specific (the second) KPI. This division allows to form the complex of models to calculate the basic indicators, which characterize performance (e.g. performance per hour), time parameters, expenses, reliability, etc. The article provides the analysis of papers on the methods of transportation efficiency rating in supply chains and the ways of their development to increase the efficiency of transportation; the new approach to obtain analytic dependencies to calculate KPI of transportation on the basis of the integral (factorial) method of economic analysis; the examples of calculations of some KPIs of transportation. The suggested KPI models can be used to create programs aimed at the digitalization of transportation operations in supply chains.
A model of a composite consisting of a dielectric base with a small admixture of semiconductor nanoparticles shaped as identical ellipsoids of revolution is considered. A uniform spatial distribution of the impurity and a uniform distribution of the directivity of the axes of revolution are assumed.
It is shown that the formulas obtained for the effective dielectric constant of the composite correspond to a superposition of two Debye processes with different relaxation times. The dielectric constant strongly nonlinearly depends on the ratio of semi-axes of the ellipsoids of revolution. This feature allows one to obtain good agreement with experimental data under the assumption that the aggregation of nanoparticles is possible even at low concentrations.
The model implies that, in the absence of an increase in the aggregation of conducting nanoparticles with an increase in the concentration, the dielectric constant of the composite linearly depends on the impurity concentration. For a composite with growing aggregation of nanoparticles, this dependence exhibits a nonlinear growth.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise.
Global warming is leading to a wide range of dramatic impacts caused by changes in surface temperature and precipitation, and increases in the frequency and scale of extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts. Climate change is occurring much faster than the global average in Russia. The water problems associated with the impacts of climate change have been very diversified due to the country’s huge amount of territory and vary substantially depending on season, economic activities, and population. The observable changes and impacts have already been dramatic in many areas, with high economic costs and loss of human life. The projections related to future climate change are even more worrisome and alarming: the threat to water resources will increase, possibly leading to huge losses. Large-scale adaptation and resilience measures are required in most Russian regions to avoid dangerous consequences in the near and medium term; however, the country still has a very weak adaptation policy, places a low priority on climate action, and employs poor proactive decision-making even in the most vulnerable areas. Climatic risk-management tools and adaptation of a national strategy will be essential elements for water management under conditions of heightened climate change in Russia.
The article highlights the issue on taxation of income gained by self-employment activity. This issue is frequently considered as a problem for many countries. Thus, study of successful practices of different developed countries may be useful for working out the national effective taxation system concerning self-employment incomes. The comparative study was by such main features, as tax registration, and limits on the amount of income. The analysis of the ways to solving the aforementioned problem, based upon practices of such countries as France, the USA, Great Britain, Germany, shows differences and similarities. At the same time, it points at the original approach to taxation of self-employment incomes in Russia. The authors pay special attention to the fact, that the development of information and communication technologies is a factor of increasing shadow economy, which exacerbates the problem of budget revenue generation. The main ways to improve the situation were worked out by authors taking into account practices of foreign countries.
The future of the Russian economy depends on several major factors: national institutions for development, human capital, technological and financial resources, and external environment. As a country with long-term ambitions, Russia is prioritizing the prosperity of its citizens, strategic security, and reviving the arts and sciences. Russia’s economic restructuring is unique in its complexity following the triple transition in the early 1990s: from the USSR to the Russian Federation, from a planned economy and state property to a market economy and private property, and from the socialist ideology to democracy. As the continental superpower with a long history of domestic and international political rivalries and conflicts, Russia has struggled to reach the current level of development. The deconstruction of global governance, as it was structured following World War II, is causing concerns to Russian political elites. In the twenty-first century, the ability of the Russian economy to retain a prominent place in the world will depend on our human capital, territory, resources, political influence, arts, and sciences. Due to the modest size of the Russian GDP, Russia will have to adapt to the world with a bigger China, the USA, India, and the European Union. Russia will stay in a group of countries with similar GDP but very different levels of development, such as Brazil, Japan, Germany, and Indonesia.
About three Soviet readers-intellectuals of the 1920-s
In this paper, we consider the problem of event recognition on single images. In contrast to conventional fine-tuning of convolutional neural networks (CNN), we proposed to use image captioning, i.e., a generative model that converts images to textual descriptions. The motivation here is the possibility to combine conventional CNNs with a completely different approach in an ensemble with high diversity. As event recognition task has nothing serial or temporal, obtained captions are one-hot encoded and summarized into a sparse feature vector suitable for the learning of an arbitrary classifier. We provide the experimental study of several feature extractors for Photo Event Collection, Web Image Dataset for Event Recognition and Multi-Label Curation of Flickr Events Dataset. It is shown that the image captions trained on the Conceptual Captions dataset can be classified more accurately than the features from an object detector, though they both are obviously not as rich as the CNN-based features. However, an ensemble of CNN and our approach provides state-of-the-art results for several event datasets.