The concept of ‘employee’ is arguably the most important one in labour law, defi ning, as it does, the scope of the discipline as a whole. This important new publication aims to develop a restatement of the concept of the employee in European labour law. The study identifi es both problems and solutions that have emerged, clearly setting out comparisons between the different member states’ approaches. The country reports explore both statutes and case law, tracking their contribution to legal doctrine. The objective of the restatement is to increase knowledge and gain a better understanding of one of the most crucial aspects of European labour law.
The volume presents a selection of contributions mostly from the fourteenth annual conference in commemoration of Prof Marco Biagi on Wellbeing at and through work held in Modena (Italy) on 17–18 March 2016. The papers, which form the chapters in this volume, cover a number of countries and a wide range of issues in relation to quality of work and employee well-being including discrimination, harassment, disability, and work-life balance addressing them in an interdisciplinary perspective. Moreover, a number of regulatory approaches ranging from legislative interventions to voluntary measures are analysed in an attempt to cast light on the problem of well-being at work.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
This valuable source for graduate students and researchers provides a comprehensive introduction to current theories and applications in optimization methods and network models. Contributions to this book are focused on new efficient algorithms and rigorous mathematical theories, which can be used to optimize and analyze mathematical graph structures with massive size and high density induced by natural or artificial complex networks. Applications to social networks, power transmission grids, telecommunication networks, stock market networks, and human brain networks are presented.
Chapters in this book cover the following topics:Linear max min fairness Heuristic approaches for high-quality solutions Efficient approaches for complex multi-criteria optimization problems Comparison of heuristic algorithms New heuristic iterative local search Power in network structures Clustering nodes in random graphs Power transmission grid structure Network decomposition problems Homogeneity hypothesis testing Network analysis of international migration Social networks with node attributes Testing hypothesis on degree distribution in the market graphs Machine learning applications to human brain network studies
This proceeding is a result of The 6th International Conference on Network Analysis held at the Higher School of Economics, Nizhny Novgorod in May 2016. The conference brought together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia to discuss the links between network analysis and a variety of fields.
As the number of digital texts increases rapidly, there is a pressing need for more advanced and diverse tools of natural language processing. While purely statistical approaches proved powerful and efficient for many NLP tasks, there are many applications that would benefit from the formal models and approaches traditional language science has to offer. With hopes to facilitate this interaction between theory and practical implementation, we are pleased to announce the workshop on Computational Linguistics and Language Science to be held in Moscow, Russia on April 25, 2016 (11 AM to 6 PM).
AIST is a scientific conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks, and Texts. The conference is intended for computer scientists and practitioners whose research interests involve Internet mathematics and other related fields of data science. Similar to the previous year, the conference will be focused on applications of data mining and machine learning techniques to various problem domains: image processing, analysis of social networks, and natural language processing. We hope that the participants will benefit from the interdisciplinary nature of the conference and exchange experience.
In Raised under Stalin, Seth Bernstein shows how Stalin's regime provided young people with opportunities as members of the Young Communist League or Komsomol even as it surrounded them with violence, shaping socialist youth culture and socialism more broadly through the threat and experience of war. Informed by declassified materials from post-Soviet archives, as well as films, memoirs, and diaries by and about youth, Raised under Stalin explains the divided status of youth for the Bolsheviks: they were the "new people" who would someday build communism, the potential soldiers who would defend the USSR, and the hooligans who might undermine it from within.
Bernstein explains how, although Soviet revolutionary youth culture began as the preserve of proletarian activists, the Komsomol transformed under Stalin to become a mass organization of moral education; youth became the targets of state repression even as Stalin’s regime offered them the opportunity to participate in political culture. Raised under Stalin follows Stalinist youth into their ultimate test, World War II. Even as the war against Germany decimated the ranks of Young Communists, Bernstein finds evidence that it cemented Stalinist youth culture as a core part of socialism.
In culturally diverse societies, one of the biggest questions on our minds is 'how shall we all live together?' Mutual Intercultural Relations offers an answer to this fundamental and topical issue. By exploring intercultural relationships between dominant/national and non-dominant/ethnic populations in seventeen societies around the world, the authors are each able to chart the respective views of those populations and generate 'universal' principles of intercultural relations. The research reported in this book is guided by three psychological hypotheses which are evaluated by empirical research. It was also carried out comparatively in order to gain knowledge about intercultural relations that may be general and not limited to a few social and political contexts. Understanding these general principles will offer help in the development of public policies and programmes designed to improve the quality of intercultural relations in culturally diverse societies around the world.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Data Analytics and Management in Data Intensive Domains, DAMDID/RCDL 2016, held in Ershovo, Moscow, Russia, in October 2016.
The 16 revised full papers presented together with one invited talk and two keynote papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on semantic modeling in data intensive domains; knowledge and learning management; text mining; data infrastructures in astrophysics; data analysis; research infrastructures; position paper.
This book is a doctoral dissertation. It is devoted to technology transfer from the West (primarily from Finland) to the Soviet forestry industry during a period of rapid modernization under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev during the 1950s and 1960s.This dissertation examines the role that technology transfer from the other side of the Iron Curtain played in Soviet modernization from 1955 to 1964. How did technical cooperation with a Western country develop in the context of the Cold War? How and in what forms did Soviet institutions and engineers transfer technologies? How did they deal with more advanced machinery and new expertise? How did they apply the new technologies and how did Soviet domestic research develop? Did these technologies help renew machinery, launch new production and enhance the development of the industry, as expected? If not, why? And, in general, did these foreign technologies lead to technological modernization? In answering these questions, the dissertation sometimes refers to previous periods in order to trace continuities and change.
The book is designed to provide assistance to economics students (CEFR correlation: B2-C1) in studying English for Specfic Purposes (ESP) and arouse their interest in global economic problems. Authentic texts on economic conditions of selected OECD member-countries alongside Brazil, China, India, Mongolia are aimed at developing reading, writing, speaking, lexical and critical thinking skills through a variety of exercises.
The book is a result of the first ever study of the transformations of the higher education institutional landscape in fifteen former USSR countries after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. It explores how the single Soviet model that developed across the vast and diverse territory of the Soviet Union over several decades has evolved into fifteen unique national systems, systems that have responded to national and global developments while still bearing some traces of the past. The book is distinctive as it presents a comprehensive analysis of the reforms and transformations in the region in the last 25 years; and it focuses on institutional landscape through the evolution of the institutional types established and developed in Pre-Soviet, Soviet and Post-Soviet time. It also embraces all fifteen countries of the former USSR, and provides a comparative analysis of transformations of institutional landscape across Post-Soviet systems. It will be highly relevant for students and researchers in the fields of higher education and and sociology, particularly those with an interest in historical and comparative studies.
What many anthropologists regard as the major step in political development occurred when, for the first time in history, previously autonomous villages gave up their individual sovereignties and were brought together into a multi-village political unit--the chiefdom. Though long neglected as a major stage in history, recent years have seen the chiefdom come in for increased attention. As its importance has been more fully recognized, it has become the object of serious scholarly analysis and interpretation. In this volume specialists in political evolution draw on data from ethnography, archaeology, and history and apply fresh insights to enhance the study of the chiefdom. The papers present penetrating analyses of many aspects of the chiefdom, from how this form of political organization first arose to the role it played in giving rise to the next major stage in the development of human society - the state.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency, PETRI NETS 2017, held in Zaragoza, Spain, in June 2017. Petri Nets 2017 is co-located with the Application of Concurrency to System Design Conference, ACSD 2017.
The 16 papers, 9 theory papers, 4 application papers, and 3 tool papers, with 1 short abstract and 3 extended abstracts of invited talks presented together in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 33 submissions. The focus of the conference is on following topics: Simulation of Colored Petri Nets, Petri Net Tools.- Model Checking, Liveness and Opacity, Stochastic Petri Nets, Specific Net Classes, and Petri Nets for Pathways.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
When the Iron Curtain lifted in 1989 it was seen by some as proof of the final demise of the ideas and aspirations of the radical left. Not many years passed, however, before the critique of capitalism and social inequalities were once again the main protest themes of social movements. This book provides an account of radical left movements in today’s Europe and how they are trying to accomplish social and political change. The book’s various chapters focus on social movement organizations, activist groups, and networks that are rooted in the left-wing ideologies of anarchism, Marxism, socialism, and communism in both newly democratized post-communist and longstanding liberal-democratic polities. The questions addressed include: How are radical left movements influenced by the political and social contexts in which they are situated? How do they interact with other political actors? How does contemporary radical left activism differ from “new” and “old” social movements on the one hand, and radical left parliamentary parties on the other? And what does it mean to be ”radical left” in liberal-democratic (or semi-democratic, or even semi-authoritarian), capitalist European societies today after the fall of state socialism.
After decades of dominant Marxism-Leninism, the post-Soviet Russian political space offers a multiplicity of discourses associated with the contemprary state and its various organs - such as the party, the presidential administration, the burocracies and media - or with the different places of ideological production revealing plurality and fluidity within Russian political languages and evoking many of the neo-conservativist ideological constructs promoted by the Kremlin. The apparent demise of Russian notions of Liberalism, its polymorphism, the influence of the Soviet experience, perestroika, the effects of the turbulent 1990s, in addiction to the effect of Western thought and foreign policies on Russia's liberal ideas and expectations, determine the role of the remaining institutions and actors that promote political , economic, and constitutional liberalism and manifest an alternative discourse that, although weakened, is still credible.
Why do coups d’état happen? Although many studies have investigated this question, they pay relatively little attention to the international causes and ramifications of coups. Especially, empirical studies on the external determinants of coup risk and outcomes still remain limited. There are two current lines of research in this direction. The first line studies international linkages and coup risk, looking at the external determinants of coups: regional spillover effects, foreign linkage, and foreign leverage. A promising angle on this front is focusing on the role of post-coup reactions from international actors to illuminate how coup plotters shape their incentives under outside pressure. The second line of research investigates interstate conflict and coup risk, considering diversionary behavior and external threats as potential coup-proofing strategies. In this effort, studying the relationship between external threat environment and coup risk can be fruitful, whereas empirical tests of the classical diversionary war theory will yield relatively marginal contributions.
Currently, three issues stand out in the empirical coup literature that should be further addressed by scholars. First is the need for more extensive and systematic data collection efforts to obtain detailed information about the identities, targets, and motives of coup perpetrators. Second, the external sources of leader insecurity beyond interstate conflicts remain an underexplored area. Third, although many studies have tried to determine when coup attempts happen, scholarly knowledge of when and how they succeed remains very limited. More work is needed to uncover the determinants of coup success across different regimes and leader survival scenarios.
We study a multidimensional hyperbolic quasi-gasdynamic (HQGD) system of equations containing terms with a regularizing parameter $\tau>0$ and 2nd order space and time derivatives; the body force is taken into account. We transform it to the form close to the compressible Navier-Stokes system of equations. Then we derive the entropy balance equation and show that the entropy production is like for the latter system plus a term of the order $O(\tau^2)$. We analyze an equation for the total entropy as well. We also show that the corresponding residuals in the HQGD equations with respect to the compressible Navier-Stokes ones are of the order $O(\tau^2)$ too. Finally we treat the simplified barotropic HQGD system of equations with the general state equation and the stationary potential body force and obtain the corresponding results for it.
Prior research on market timing theory in relation to developing markets only analyzes equity issuance and provides contradictory results. Using a sample of large Russian companies in nonfinancial sectors between 2008 and 2015, this paper analyzes both equity and debt market timing to explore the impact of market timing on firms’ capital structure. To test the robustness of the results, we use several proxies for both timing types and include Russian-specific control variables of corporate governance and ownership. The results show that Russian companies time the debt market to attract extra capital if the value of the interest rate in the current period is lower than the rates in previous periods. The net debt issued decreases when interest rates are high, which indicates debt market timing. Consistent with previous studies, we find that Russian companies do not time the equity market. Added corporate governance factors suggest that younger boards of directors prefer debt financing to equity issuance, as well as more experienced ones. State ownership is negatively connected with leverage.
To describe virus evolution, it is necessary to define a fitness landscape. In this article, we consider the microscopic models with the advanced version of neutral network fitness landscapes. In this problem setting, we suppose a fitness difference between one-point mutation neighbors to be small. We construct a modification of the Wright–Fisher model, which is related to ordinary infinite population models with nearly neutral network fitness landscape at the large population limit. From the microscopic models in the realistic sequence space, we derive two versions of nearly neutral network models: with sinks and without sinks. We claim that the suggested model describes the evolutionary dynamics of RNA viruses better than the traditional Wright–Fisher model with few sequences.
Theoretical results of curing antennas made of composite materials using electromagnetic field of super high frequencies as a source of heat energy are presented. The advantages of microwave heat treatment of the antenna made of carbon fiber with epoxy binder in comparison with traditional methods are presented. Results of theoretical studies on the accelerated curing of antennas made of composite materials in microwave radiation type installation in the periodic mode are presented.
A radial type setup for the polymerization of antennas made of composite materials with a diameter of 1200mm, a thickness of 3mm at a temperature of +180°with the electromagnetic field frequency oscillations of 2450MHz and a power output of 4.8kW was developed. A set allows to reduce the energy consumption for the technological process of accelerated curing of an antenna made of composite material, increase productivity and improve working conditions of staff.
The essential expressions and calculation results of the temperature distribution along the thickness of the antenna made of composite material are presented. The heating duration of the antenna from the temperature of +20°C to a temperature of +200°C, weight 5,4kg, is 160 seconds. The temperature deviation from the nominal value of the temperature on the surface of the antenna is absent, and through the thickness of the antenna does not exceed 2°C.
As a result, the research shows the prospects of using microwave radiation for the production processes associated with accelerated curing of parabolic antennas made of composite materials. Currently work is underway to study the strength characteristics of polymer antennas, assuming that the uniform heating of the antenna leads to the absence of internal stresses and other defects of the material structure of the antenna.
Studying the heterogeneity of consumers allows to price the product differently for consumer segments or groups of a product. In this paper we estimate a model of aggregate demand for Perm Opera and Ballet Theatre focusing on the heterogeneity in price effect on demand for tickets on different performances and seats. We estimate parameters of demand function using censored quantile regression that accounts for the limited capacity of the theatre house. We reveal the price effect variation across different types of theatrical productions and seats with lower elastic demand on ballets and for seats of higher quality.
We consider a natural generalization to the class of all GLP-algebras of the so-called reduction property for the polymodal provability algebras in arithmetic. An analogue of this property is established for the free GLP-algebras and for some topological GLP-algebras (GLP-spaces).
The article explores the role of accounting and reforms of financial management practices in 18th century Russian state administration and finance combining historical and comparative levels of analysis.
This paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of the progression and stages of breast cancer. The Consolidated mathematical growth Model of primary tumor (PT) and secondary distant metastases (MTS) in patients with lymph nodes MTS (Stage III) (CoM-III) is proposed as a new research tool. The CoM-III rests on an exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations. The CoM-III describes correctly primary tumor growth (parameter T) and distant metastases growth (parameter M, parameter N). The CoM-III model and predictive software: a) detect di erent growth periods of primary tumor and distant metastases in patients with lymph nodes MTS; b) make forecast of the period of the distant metastases appearance in patients with lymph nodes MTS; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimisation of diagnostic tests. The CoM-III enables us, for the rst time, to predict the whole natural history of PT and secondary distant MTS growth of patients with/without lymph nodes MTS on each stage relying only on PT sizes.
In the later decade Russia continued progress in terms of economic growth and lowering poverty. Yet Russia was much less successful in reducing inequality which skyrocketed after the market liberalization reforms in the early 1990s. Currently inequality in Russia has stabilized at the level which is significantly above the OECD average: the average Gini coefficient for the OECD countries in 2014 was 0.318, while it was 0.416 in Russia. Current macroeconomic environment with continuous recession, which started in 2014 and massive terms of trade shock due to collapse of oil prices, threatens to reverse Russia’s substantial achievements in terms of raising incomes of the population and reducing poverty. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of income and wealth inequality in Russia and the impact of the current crisis. The focus throughout the chapter is on the national distribution of income and wealth. In market economies income and wealth serve as good predictors of well-being in other domains, such as social inclusion, education, health, etc.
Strictly positive logics recently attracted attention both in the description logic and in the provability logic communities for their combination of efficiency and sufficient expressivity. The language of Reflection Calculus RC consists of implications between formulas built up from propositional variables and the constant ‘true’ using only conjunction and the diamond modalities which are interpreted in Peano arithmetic as restricted uniform reflection principles.
We extend the language of RCRC by another series of modalities representing the operators associating with a given arithmetical theory T its fragment axiomatized by all theorems of T of arithmetical complexity Π0nΠn0, for all n>0n>0. We note that such operators, in a precise sense, cannot be represented in the full language of modal logic.
We formulate a formal system extending RCRC that is sound and, as we conjecture, complete under this interpretation. We show that in this system one is able to express iterations of reflection principles up to any ordinal <ε0<ε0. On the other hand, we provide normal forms for its variable-free fragment. Thereby, the variable-free fragment is shown to be algorithmically decidable and complete w.r.t. its natural arithmetical semantics.
Tha chapter analyses contract of employment: basic definition, formal requirements, effects of invalidity of contract; basic definition of the employment relationship; basic definitions of employee and employer; establishment of sub-types of employees; establishment of specific group of ‘workers’ ; criteria and indicators of economic depemdenace and subordination and other criterias of employee in Russian albour law.
This paper presents the results of our experiments on building a general coreference resolution system for Russian. The main aim of those experiments was to set a baseline for this task for Russian using the standard set of features developed and tested for coreference resolution systems created for other languages. We propose several baseline systems, both rule-based and ML-based. We show that adding some semantic information is crucial for the task and even the small amount of data can improve the overall result. We show that different types of semantic resources affect the performance differently and sometimes more does not imply better.
Exploring Bass’ Triangulability Problem on unipotent algebraic subgroups of the affine Cremona groups, we prove a triangulability criterion, the existence of nontriangulable connected solvable affine algebraic subgroups of the Cremona groups, and stable triangulability of such subgroups; in particular, in the stable range we answer Bass’ Triangulability Problem in the affirmative. To this end we prove a theorem on invariant subfields of 1-extensions. We also obtain a general construction of all rationally triangulable subgroups of the Cremona groups and, as an application, classify rationally triangulable connected one-dimensional unipotent affine algebraic subgroups of the Cremona groups up to conjugacy.
In this paper we apply network analysis to the study of literature. At the first stage of our investigation we automatically extract networks (graphs) of characters for each part of Leo Tolstoy’s novel War and peace using two different techniques for network creation. Then we evaluate these two techniques against a set of manually created gold standard networks. Finally, we use the method that demonstrated better performance in our evaluation to test a literary hypothesis about Tolstoy’s novel. The hypotheses we intended to prove was that the parts of the novel describing war (i.e. those where the battlefield or military units are the primary settings), have statistically lower density of interaction between characters, resulting in lower network density, higher network diameters and lesser average node degrees. By showing this correlation we mean to demonstrate the applicability of network analysis to computational research of fictional narrative (e.g. detection of tension changes in the plot).