• A
  • A
  • A
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 43 055
Sort:
by name
by year
Article
Дежина И. Г., Пономарев А. К. Вопросы экономики. 2013. № 3. С. 70-82.

The article analyzes reforms of organizational structure of Russian science in the post-Soviet period. The authors suggest a new model of organizing research groups with the aim to increase international competitiveness of Russian science. The development of possible versions of organization of such groups was based on unfocused interviews with prominent Russian scholars and representatives of Russian-speaking research diaspora. Major principles of functioning of new laboratories are analyzed, including the linkages with host institutions, financial, human resources, and governance aspects, as well as procedures for monitoring and evaluation.

Added: Jul 26, 2013
Article
Оберемко О. А. Социологический журнал. 1995. Т. 2. № 2.
Added: Oct 27, 2010
Article
Ларкина Т. Ю. Экономическая социология. 2016. Т. 17. № 2. С. 156-164.

Rene Almeling’s book Sex Cells: The Medical Market for Eggs and Sperm concerns the issues of the gendered framing of the market and the commodification of the human body and its parts. With the rich empirical base of the study, Almeling offers a new way of theorizing bodily commodification, noting the non-commonality of this phenomenon and emphasizing the diversity of market organizational and experienced practices. The detailed and unbiased analysis of market organization and its experience, in which these two aspects are viewed in their interrelationship, promotes a better understanding of what is occurring when bodily products are offered for sale. In addition, Almeling develops Viviana Zelizer’s model for market analysis, adding a biological factor to the economic, structural, and cultural factors. The book teaches us not to forget that the phenomena of the social world are highly complex and multifaceted and, therefore, cannot be explained with the application of simplified analytical schemes. Moreover, Almeling’s study, in which she links together several layers of social reality, is an excellent example of how to deal with this task. The book review acquaints readers with the basic points of the book and sex cells’ market construction in the United States; it also focuses on the issues that require further investigation. The reviewer will try to show the importance of including the biological factor in the theoretical framework for market analyses and its possibilities beyond such a “peripheral” and sensitive subject.

Added: Apr 1, 2016
Article
Орел Е. А. Организационная психология. 2011. № 2. С. 105-107.
Added: Oct 10, 2012
Article
Денчев К. Вестник Московского городского педагогического университета. Серия: Исторические науки. 2005. № 1. С. 76-79.
Added: Jan 31, 2011
Article
Артюхин Р. Е. Бюджет. 2009. № 3. С. 17-25.
Added: Feb 4, 2010
Article
Косарева Н. Б. Имущественные отношения в Российской Федерации. 2009. № 1. С. 89-90.
Added: Feb 16, 2010
Article
Akhmedov E., Pilling T., Singleton D. International Journal of Modern Physics D. 2008. Vol. 17. P. 2453-2458.
Added: Feb 26, 2013
Article
Vlassov V. The Lancet. 2017.

The scale-up of tobacco control, especially after the adoption of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is a major public health success story. Nonetheless, smoking remains a leading risk for early death and disability worldwide, and therefore continues to require sustained political commitment. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) offers a robust platform through which global, regional, and national progress toward achieving smoking-related targets can be assessed.

Methods

We synthesized 2,818 data sources with spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and produced estimates of daily smoking prevalence by sex, age group, and year for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We analyzed 38 risk-outcome pairs to generate estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We then did a cohort analysis of smoking prevalence by birth-year cohort to better understand temporal age patterns in smoking. We also did a decomposition analysis, in which we parsed out changes in all-cause smoking-attributable DALYs due to changes in population growth, population aging, smoking prevalence, and risk-deleted DALY rates. Finally, we explored results by level of development using the Socio-demographic Index (SDI).

Findings

Worldwide, the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking was 25.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24.2–25.7) for men and 5.4% (5.1–5.7) for women, representing 28.4% (25.8–31.1) and 34.4% (29.4–38.6) reductions, respectively, since 1990. A greater percentage of countries and territories achieved significant annualized rates of decline in smoking prevalence from 1990 to 2005 than in between 2005 and 2015; however, only two countries had significant annualized increases in smoking prevalence between 2005 and 2015 (Congo for men and Kuwait for women). In 2015, 11.5% of global deaths (6.4 million [95% UI 5.7–7.0 million]) were attributable to smoking worldwide, of which 52.2% took place in four countries (China, India, the US, and Russia). Smoking was ranked among the five leading risk factors by DALYs in 109 countries and territories in 2015, rising from 88 geographies in 1990. In terms of birth cohorts, male smoking prevalence followed similar age patterns across levels of SDI, whereas much more heterogeneity was found in age patterns for female smokers by level of development. While smoking prevalence and risk-deleted DALY rates mostly decreased by sex and SDI quintile, population growth, population aging, or a combination of both, drove rises in overall smoking-attributable DALYs in low-SDI to middle-SDI geographies between 2005 and 2015.

Interpretation

The pace of progress in reducing smoking prevalence has been heterogeneous across geographies, development status, and sex, and as highlighted by more recent trends, maintaining past rates of decline should not be taken for granted, especially in women and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. Beyond the effect of the tobacco industry and societal mores, a crucial challenge facing tobacco control initiatives is that demographic forces are poised to heighten smoking’s global toll, unless progress in preventing initiation and promoting cessation can be substantially accelerated. Greater success in tobacco control is possible but requires effective, comprehensive, and adequately implemented and enforced policies, which might in turn require global and national levels of political commitment beyond what has been achieved during the past 25 years.

Citation: 

GBD 2015 Tobacco Collaborators. Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet. 2017 April 7;14:48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30819-X

 

Added: Apr 9, 2017
Article
Рожков А. Г., Бузулукова Е. В. Российский журнал менеджмента. 2009. Т. 7. № 4. С. 191-195.
Added: Feb 23, 2010
Article
Васильева В. О. Российская история. 2012. № 6. С. 200-202.
Added: Feb 9, 2013
Article
Дамье В. В. Новое литературное обозрение. 2007. № 84. С. 88-119.
Added: Jul 4, 2011
Article
Рожков А. Г. Российский журнал менеджмента. 2011. Т. 9. № 4. С. 132-134.
Added: Apr 9, 2012
Article
Kolokolov I., Gamba A., Martellini M. et al. Physics Letters A. 1994. Vol. 190. No. 2. P. 206-212.

We investigate the conductance of a 1D disordered conducting loop with two contacts, immersed in a magnetic flux. We show the appearance in this model of the Al'tshuler-Aronov-Spivak behaviour. We also investigate the case of a chain of loops distributed with finite density: in this case we show that the interference effects due to the presence of the loops can lead to the delocalization of the wave function.

Added: Mar 28, 2017