Сколько «стоит» школьный учитель? Формирование заработной платы в общеобразовательных школах
Studying the consequences of performance pay. Comments to Victor Lavys article «Performance pay and teachers effort, productivity and grading ethics» The author reviews the principal directions of the research on the effects of performance pay in schools on students grades and on the behavior of teachers. Analyzed are methodological particularities of various studies. A conclusion is made concerning the prospective usefulness of V. Lavys methods of the evaluation of new teacher pay systems.
учителя, Мотивация, стимулирование, оплата по результату, рейтинги, принципы оценивания учеников, Социальная политика, Teachers, Motivation, incentive creation, performance pay, Ratings, grading principles, social policies
Now we have the need for methodics of teaching the topic "parallel computing" in secondary school. The paper presents a three-year experience of the author in this field: a methodical approach, the selection of materials, the business games, experience of tasks on parallel computing at the contest "TRIZformashka", classes of tasks, examples of tasks, program executors, texts for propaedeutic textbook on informatics.
In the article the international experience of management of employment in the public sector is shown, corresponding numerical calculations are given, the thought on possibility of its use in Russia is stated. The author believes that transfer of some functions into outsourcing in frameworks of the policy of the new public management (NPM) can be one of directions of perfection of the management of employment efficiency and payment in the public sector. Simultaneously he expresses his conviction that reduction of the number of the occupied should not be mechanical, but the thought over and gradual process assuming simultaneous increase of efficiency of activity in the sphere of the public management.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.