Использование параданных в опросах для корректировки и оптимизации полевых работ в адаптивном дизайне
One of the advantages of com puterassisted and online data collection tools is also an opportunity to obtain a large array of information about the collection process, i.e. paradata. The article reviews the works employing paradata in various research areas. The author defines and classifies paradata and identifies the basic directions where paradata can be used paying attention to restrictions and collection opportunities. In conclusion, the author gives practical suggestions for the effective use of para data as a research tool.
The review will be useful and interest ing both to academic and marketing researchers and methodologists (along with practitioners). The paper will devel op a better understanding of this data type, opportunities, constraints and fu ture prospects related to its uses.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.