Such abilities as to think critically and collaborate with others have never been more important than in the 21st century. These skills constitute a fundamental element of success in the job market, and become an essential aspect of the universities curriculum. Educators and policy makers around the world are in search for ways to develop and improve these skills through student engagement in various activities on campus. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of students’ extracurricular engagement to the fostering academic outcomes such as interpersonal and teamwork skills.
The current study is based on the Student Experience in Research University (SERU) Project. The sample consists of undergraduate students of different majors enrolled at a Russian research-intensive university in the academic year 2016-2017 and equals to 3,344 respondents. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the contribution of students’ involvement in extracurricular activities in developing interpersonal and teamwork skills.
The results suggest that there is a statistically significant difference between the underlying distributions of gains in interpersonal and teamwork skills of students who were involved in extracurricular activities and those who were not.
A premise of this work is that engaging students in activities beyond the classroom but related to academic curriculum would increase their human and social capital to the normative importance that university places on higher education beyond the Bachelor’s degree. Engagement in extracurricular activities offered by universities fosters students’ interpersonal and teamwork skills. Our research findings should encourage administrators and faculty to consider creating and promoting the avenues available to undergraduates to help them make sense of the material they learned, set connections between prior and new knowledge, and practice skills.
Modern urban youth sports cultures are notable for their diverse and complex nature. The question arises as to what analytical approach should be used to study their multifaceted character. Using the St Petersburg skateboard scene as an example, the article shows the advantages in applying the concept of the post-sport cultures to understand how the common functions of urban infrastructure are redefined, what trends exist on the scene, how they shape the meanings attributed to them by the scene participants, and how those signs are read. The study also employs the solidarity approach to describe the interactions between the scene participants through the ideas and ideological controversies shared by them. The focus of the paper is how to apply solidarity approach to study the nature of urban postsport cultures based on St Petersburg skateboard scene case study. Given the lack of Russian publications on the topic, the study is also aimed at inscribing the Russian skateboarding experience into the Western academic context.
The article provides an assessment of the factors that may affect the probability and intensity of physical activity among young Russians aged 15–24. The analysis is based on the data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), 2000–2016 (N = 21,703). Econometric analysis shows that there is a positive relationship between the physical activity probability and the indicators such as educational level, household per capita income, and living in capital cities. There is also a negative relationship between the probability of physical activity and individual’s characteristics such as smoking, family status (marriage), employment status (having a job). Relationship between the probability and intensity of physical activity and such features as alcohol consumption, body mass index and subjective health assessment is inconclusive. Implementation of measures aimed at increasing the physical activity of young Russians taking into account the stimulating or restraining factors may increase the productivity of physical exercise and further improve health condition and contribute to a longer lifespan in Russia
This paper addresses questions concerning the Russian nationalist movement in light of the Ukrainian Maidan revolution and its political and cultural consequences. We argue that these questions have been rarely raised by an academic community in spite of the relatively large amount of works focused on the Ukrainian crisis. Furthermore, we show how the Ukrainian events caused profound changes in the Russian domestic politics which should not be overlooked. This paper considers how the organizations belonging to the Russian nationalist movement reacted to the Ukrainian events. The types of their reaction vary from supporting Maidan and decrying the Russian policy in Ukraine to decrying Maidan and supporting the Russian policy in Ukraine. We tried to identify those organizations’ ideological basics, which explained differences in the types of their reaction. Information concerning these processes was gained by means of mixed methods. We combined a qualitative flexible interview format and text analysis with their formalized analogues. After organizing the raw data into the matrix, we used log-linear analysis, which showed that only four ideological basics out of the six explored ones played the statistically significant role as predictors. These basics are the standpoints regarding the USSR and type of their nationalism, the adhering to racism and preferences regarding the Russia’s territory.
The article focused on the experience of studying youth cultural practices and group identities in Russia in the post-soviet era. The attention to 25 years period of the youth cultural space transformation could be explained not only with scientific interest and an attempt to understand the changes that have occurred in this historical period, but with the fact, that during these years the theoretical and practical findings and work of the Scientific Centre “Region”, Ulyanovsk State University (founded in 1995) and Centre for Youth Studies, Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg (founded in 2009) were developed. The task to include in the frame of one article all our results is ambitious and perhaps could not be complete. That is why we will focus the main attention on the key directions of the transformation of youth cultural practices, on the crucial plots of the direct and mediated influence of global trends as well as local discourses. It is important to understand: did these changes follow the global tendencies (Europe, North America, and Australia) described in the key works of researchers of youth cultures and practices? Or is the Russian case an exception fallen out the ‘classical’ picture? The basis for the analysis is the data from key research projects of our Centers, as well as new theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of changing youth sociality in the frame of political and cultural transformations of Russian society.
The contemporary youth studies are developing as mostly metrocentric. As a result, rural youth often find themselves out of the focus of attention of researchers, and they are marginalised in comparison with urban youth, whose experience and lifestyle are perceived as the normative model for all areas. In these conditions, rural space is labelled as illegitimate and structurally depriving for youth. This approach is criticised by researchers working in the tradition of cultural geographies of childhood and youth, who take into account the multiple, complex, often contradictory, but still unique and autonomous experiences of today's young people living in rural areas. The article is based on 59 biographical interviews and describes how Russian rural youth comprehend belonging to places in three rural localities. The authors single out three types of prerequisites defining the place attachment and local identities among young people: rational choice, biographical rootedness, and community rootedness.
From 2007 to 2015 total fertility rate in Russia increased from 1.42 to 1.78, following a long period of decline in 1990-1999 and stagnation in 2000-2006. Politicians attribute this growth to a package of pro-natalist policy measures introduced in 2007 and particularly to the maternity (family) capital program, the most well-known innovation of the 2007 reform. Existing studies, although sparse, have not actually proven this point of view clearly yet. This paper aims to reveal whether the pro-natalist measures of 2007 have influenced probability of second and consequent births in Russia. Since in 2007 several family policy measures were introduced simultaneously, and the authors estimate their cumulative effect applying a set of binary logistic regressions on the panel of Russian Generations and Gender Survey data collected in 2004, 2007, and 2011. The study reveals that the probability of second and subsequent births before the introduction of policy measures does not differ significantly from that observed after it. The authors find no effect of 2007 family policy changes on probability of second and consequent births in Russia. The data shows some signs of selective influence of the 2007 policy changes on women with lower human capital and incomes, however, further studies on bigger samples are needed to prove this fact. The study extends the academic discussion and adds to the pool of empirical evidence on the pro-natalist policy effects on fertility. By demonstrating no significant effects of Russian 2007 family policy measures the paper contributes to the overcoming of existing publication bias in the field.
The article presents the results of a two-year research project devoted to the integration of second generation migrants in the young adult age range (18-35 years old) from the regions of Transcaucasia and Central Asia currently living in Russia. The project includes an online survey where respondents were recruited using a targeting procedure on social networking sites (N=12524) and a series of interviews (N=401) in 10 regions of Russia. The article contains four parts—each dealing with one of the four migrant integration dimensions—which have been delineated based on the German tradition in migrant integration studies: structural, social, cultural, and identificational integration. The authors show that second generation migrants from Transcaucasia and Central Asia do not differ from their local peers in terms of their earnings, but there are significant variations in their educational level: higher education characterizes first of all second-generation migrants from Transcaucasia to a lesser extent local youth, even less so — second-generation migrants from Central Asia. Social networks of second-generation migrants are inclusive and dominated by the representatives of “other” ethnic categories; however, their marriages are mostly monoethnic. A considerable share of second-generation migrants have “liberal” attitudes and practices in the realm of gender relations, and although second-generation migrants are generally more conservative than the local youth, the gap is minor. Second-generation migrants have a strong identification with “their own” ethnic categories but that impedes neither their feeling “at home” in Russia nor their belonging in the town or region of Russia where they grew up. A comparison of integration characteristics of second-generation migrants in Russia with situations in other migrant-receiving countries shows that the Russian case is successful, comparable with Canada and Australia. However, the success is explained not with the well-reasoned migration policy as in the latter states, but with the various factors of the Soviet past including a common cultural environment as well as egalitarian urban landscapes that are of paramount importance for the comprehension of the migration system centered around Russia.
To reduce complexity and increase reliability of coding answers to open-ended questions are among the main targets of the survey methodology. Using the answers to an open-ended question recorded by the interviewers during a Russian national sample survey, the article demonstrates a procedure, which allows (1) explicating the syntactic-and-semantic structure of the answers, expected by the asked question designer, (2) reconstructing a repertoire of the questions, which were actually answered, (3) diagnosing communicative adequacy of the question as it was designed for a survey, (4) specifying instructions for interviewers how to record and for codifiers how to code the answers to an open-ended question, and (5) elaborating a comprehensive framework of school grammar categories to formal systematic (pre)coding answers to open-ended questions. The qualitative (logical-and-semantic) perspective on sample survey communication, it is shown, is extremely useful to grasp crucial differences between the respondents’ tongue(s) and the pollster’ one.
In the last thirty years, a significant shift from the homology to omnivore argument has occurred in musical preference studies. Studies on the omnivore argument mainly come from North and South America, Western and sometimes Eastern Europe. To the best of our knowledge, there are no empirical tests of musical omnivorousness in Russia. The aim of this paper is to reveal omnivore musical preferences in Russia, and analyzes the links between musical preferences, social-demographic profiles, and tolerance. Our research also emphasizes the territory dimension. The research setting is the Perm Region. A survey of 2,400 Perm Region citizens is analyzed using principal component analysis and linear regression provides evidence for the research. Our findings do not indicate omnivore musical tastes in Russia that contradicts the conclusions of the research in other cultures. Instead of finding the omnivore pattern, we found Bourdieu-like patterns of classical versus pop music taste and nostalgic taste versus contemporary taste. Representatives of each taste pattern have a specific social-demographic profile. The urbanization factor influences musical preferences as well. The paper discusses the limitations of the research and directions for further work.
The article describes a scale fit for evaluation of tendencies towards authoritarian ideologies. It is constructed on the basis of a system of alternative judgements fixing respondents' agreement by the following axes: collectivism/individualism; hostility/amicability of the surrounding world; equality of relationships with the surrounding world; inclination/opposition to acceptance of absolute authorities; negation/acceptance of universality of moral norms. Authoritarianism indices are presented, calculated for various social groups, proceeding from materials of two mass representative surveys conducted by VCIOM ('Culture', June 1992, and the monitoring, May 1994). The level of authoritarianism sufficiently depends on such factors as the age, education level, status of respondents, the form of propriety of organizations where they work, as well as the degree of adaptedness to the present socio-political situation, and ideological attitudes. Comparison of the two surveys has shown that at present the population of Russia is more strongly attracted by authoritarianisn than liberal notions. On the average in the sample, the correlation of 'authoritarian' and 'not authoritarian' was 3:2.
The article aims to analyze the potential of the concept of the balance of life and labor and the possibility of its application to the study of academic and university career. The roots of this concept are related to gender research and gender ideology, the needs of women in a number of specific institutional actions to remove barriers in the labor market, and to symbolic and economic recognition of household work and care. The formula indicates the transfer of the center of gravity in the construction of the life path to an individual choice in the variant of synchrony or diachrony of events, the shift of external control over the life project to self-determination. The constituent elements of this concept are: a wide range of family forms, increased subjectivization, the search for compatibility of various significant areas of life under flexible working conditions, a way to temporarily coordinate the requests of various areas of life that need streamlining through the budget of time; request for quality of life in its subjective and objective dimension. At the same time, the concept of balance suggests the opposite: instability and imbalances, which are considered in the article with examples of established patterns of academic career in Europe and Russia. The working conditions under which the scientific middle class works are still unstable, if not precarious, and at the same time not very friendly to the family. The balance of life and work confronts with the factors of timing and contractual insecurity. The risk in anticipation of career growth to lose the opportunity to form a partnership and family, many women in universities regard as significantly high, reacting with interruptions in their careers from halfway through and not breaking through the glass ceiling of professors, or moving away / giving up fertile plans. The term “balance” itself refers to the normative idea of its necessity, discursively voicing modes of harmonization in the sphere of life and labor. In this sense, the balance of life and work potentially covers both the level of institutional support and the level of individual strategies. Conservation of life and labor imbalances in the academic sphere is related to the fact that structural obstacles and difficulties in achieving a balance of life and labor caused by the institutional context are reviewed by researchers and teachers in problem situations that need to be addressed individually. This individual strategy to overcome structural problem situations, although unintentionally, largely stabilizes the status quo
The paper provides an analysis of the dynamics of youth perceptions of integration processes in the post-Soviet countries. The study is focused on the opinions and preferences of young per- sons aged 18-24 living in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Tajikistan. Which countries are the most attractive for the young generations to live, work and study? Which countries are good to develop economic relations with, to exchange technologies with and to attract specialists from? What attitudes do youngsters have to- wards Russia, the U.S.A. and China? What do young people think about the Eurasian Economic Union, and how do they assess the potential for economic rapprochement between the CIS countries for the next five years? The paper provides the answers to these questions using the data of the annual Integration Barometer conducted by the Eurasian Development Bank in cooperation with the Eurasian Monitor (2012-2017 waves). The results show that the attitudes vary substantially depending on the economic and political situation in the world. At the same time, there has been a drop in youth interest in Russia and an increase in their preferences for Germany, the U.S., Turkey and China, whether it be an internship, courses or a job. However, young people from the Central Asia view positively the Eurasian Economic Union and appreciate the integration with the post-Soviet states. On the contrary, young Moldovans and Armenians increasingly turn their eyes toward Western countries and are less likely to cooperate with Russia in social, cultural and economic spheres.
The article is devoted to a story happened to one of the most awaited videogames over the last years called ‘No Man’s Sky’. The videogame has been developed for five years and during all this time it has been surrounded by hype and media frenzy that produced high expectations. The game was expected to be a breakthrough in the game industry, however when the game was released it received low assessments by the game industry media and negative reviews of the gamers. The developers were accused of not providing the options they showed in trailers. Based on theoretical resources of the platform studies and a notion of demonstration, the authors try to figure out why the game failed. The analysis of trailers and the YouTube users’ comments show that the game failed not as a consequence of direct lies by developers but due to understatement and non-informative character of the game demonstrations which led to various interpretations according to the work of imagination. This is also caused by the barriers that the forms of video game-play demonstrations have as they do not convey true game-playing experiences. On the other hand, the ‘No Man’s Sky’ failure is due to some YouTube specifics being a platform which lets the audience to participate in the creation of something of a ‘media version’ of ‘No Man’s Sky’ reality. The ‘media version’ outperformed the game itself in its grandiosity and scale. The problem was that the developers did not limit the growth of the ‘media version’, and it ended in game failure. Thus, one may talk of a multiple character of modern cultural objects with users participating in their creation.
The paper considers the relationship between anonymity and normativity on different websites. The ‘accounts’ concept (speech patterns which help the actor to explain personal or anyone else’s unsuitable conduct in a situation under assessment) is used to analyze normativity. The author describes the modern discussion concerning anonymity on the Internet and gives an attempt to explore the anonymity continuum based on the cases of the «Podslushano» project and #yaneboyusskazat flash mob. The «Podslushano» community moderators publish anonymous stories of users on behalf of community while the #yaneboyusskazat posts are published on authors’ personal web pages. At the same time, in the flash mob community normativity is formed which affects the social acceptability. So the study provides a comparison between various factors defining normativity and social acceptability. The position of the website on the anonymity continuum can set a range of social acceptability of content to be published on that website as well as the degree of conformity to the group norms of the website.
The article analyzes the combination of work and life in a male-dominated profession (police worker) among the women in Vologda oblast. The analysis is based on the qualitative study conducted in 2016–2017 in Vologda, Vytegra, Totma and Nikolsk using focus groups, individual and group interviews. The focus of the study is to reveal ways of maintaining work-life balance among police men and women. The research objectives are to define the specifics of male and female work in police, possible gender segregation and discrimination, the character of the combination of family and professional duties, the level and reasons of job satisfaction, correlation between profession and gender roles of men and women and their environment, specific masculine ideals typical of policemen, and police career prospects for men and women. The study reveals that men and women working in police solve their work-life balance problems independently and differently. Men tend to spend more time at work and search for opportunities to find extra income. However they try to find time to do their household duties, mainly because that would give a wife an opportunity to keep her paid employment. Women pursue flexibilization of their professional and family activities removing the borders between work and family care.
Based on the survey and data of semi-structured interviews with faculty in one of the leading research universities in Russia the article reveals key sources of work related stress for academics in Russia. Increasing requirements for academic performance, a large amount of administrative burden and disruption of work-life balance are among them. We argue that stress in Academia is determined by global trends caused by neo-managerial reforms of science and higher education, as well as by participation of universities in the race of international rankings. We also show that continuous character of academic work is associated with fuzzy boundaries between work and leisure, which make academic profession relatively stressful by itself. According to the study, the risk groups in terms of stress are young employees, and those who engage largely in administrative work. At the end of the article, we discuss the concept of stress in the field of academic work and raise the question about the ratio between the positive effects of stress and the risks of the negative impact it may have on the Academia.