This paper addresses questions concerning the Russian nationalist movement in light of the Ukrainian Maidan revolution and its political and cultural consequences. We argue that these questions have been rarely raised by an academic community in spite of the relatively large amount of works focused on the Ukrainian crisis. Furthermore, we show how the Ukrainian events caused profound changes in the Russian domestic politics which should not be overlooked. This paper considers how the organizations belonging to the Russian nationalist movement reacted to the Ukrainian events. The types of their reaction vary from supporting Maidan and decrying the Russian policy in Ukraine to decrying Maidan and supporting the Russian policy in Ukraine. We tried to identify those organizations’ ideological basics, which explained differences in the types of their reaction. Information concerning these processes was gained by means of mixed methods. We combined a qualitative flexible interview format and text analysis with their formalized analogues. After organizing the raw data into the matrix, we used log-linear analysis, which showed that only four ideological basics out of the six explored ones played the statistically significant role as predictors. These basics are the standpoints regarding the USSR and type of their nationalism, the adhering to racism and preferences regarding the Russia’s territory.
The article focused on the experience of studying youth cultural practices and group identities in Russia in the post-soviet era. The attention to 25 years period of the youth cultural space transformation could be explained not only with scientific interest and an attempt to understand the changes that have occurred in this historical period, but with the fact, that during these years the theoretical and practical findings and work of the Scientific Centre “Region”, Ulyanovsk State University (founded in 1995) and Centre for Youth Studies, Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg (founded in 2009) were developed. The task to include in the frame of one article all our results is ambitious and perhaps could not be complete. That is why we will focus the main attention on the key directions of the transformation of youth cultural practices, on the crucial plots of the direct and mediated influence of global trends as well as local discourses. It is important to understand: did these changes follow the global tendencies (Europe, North America, and Australia) described in the key works of researchers of youth cultures and practices? Or is the Russian case an exception fallen out the ‘classical’ picture? The basis for the analysis is the data from key research projects of our Centers, as well as new theoretical and methodological approaches to the analysis of changing youth sociality in the frame of political and cultural transformations of Russian society.
The contemporary youth studies are developing as mostly metrocentric. As a result, rural youth often find themselves out of the focus of attention of researchers, and they are marginalised in comparison with urban youth, whose experience and lifestyle are perceived as the normative model for all areas. In these conditions, rural space is labelled as illegitimate and structurally depriving for youth. This approach is criticised by researchers working in the tradition of cultural geographies of childhood and youth, who take into account the multiple, complex, often contradictory, but still unique and autonomous experiences of today's young people living in rural areas. The article is based on 59 biographical interviews and describes how Russian rural youth comprehend belonging to places in three rural localities. The authors single out three types of prerequisites defining the place attachment and local identities among young people: rational choice, biographical rootedness, and community rootedness.
To reduce complexity and increase reliability of coding answers to open-ended questions are among the main targets of the survey methodology. Using the answers to an open-ended question recorded by the interviewers during a Russian national sample survey, the article demonstrates a procedure, which allows (1) explicating the syntactic-and-semantic structure of the answers, expected by the asked question designer, (2) reconstructing a repertoire of the questions, which were actually answered, (3) diagnosing communicative adequacy of the question as it was designed for a survey, (4) specifying instructions for interviewers how to record and for codifiers how to code the answers to an open-ended question, and (5) elaborating a comprehensive framework of school grammar categories to formal systematic (pre)coding answers to open-ended questions. The qualitative (logical-and-semantic) perspective on sample survey communication, it is shown, is extremely useful to grasp crucial differences between the respondents’ tongue(s) and the pollster’ one.
The article describes a scale fit for evaluation of tendencies towards authoritarian ideologies. It is constructed on the basis of a system of alternative judgements fixing respondents' agreement by the following axes: collectivism/individualism; hostility/amicability of the surrounding world; equality of relationships with the surrounding world; inclination/opposition to acceptance of absolute authorities; negation/acceptance of universality of moral norms. Authoritarianism indices are presented, calculated for various social groups, proceeding from materials of two mass representative surveys conducted by VCIOM ('Culture', June 1992, and the monitoring, May 1994). The level of authoritarianism sufficiently depends on such factors as the age, education level, status of respondents, the form of propriety of organizations where they work, as well as the degree of adaptedness to the present socio-political situation, and ideological attitudes. Comparison of the two surveys has shown that at present the population of Russia is more strongly attracted by authoritarianisn than liberal notions. On the average in the sample, the correlation of 'authoritarian' and 'not authoritarian' was 3:2.
The article aims to analyze the potential of the concept of the balance of life and labor and the possibility of its application to the study of academic and university career. The roots of this concept are related to gender research and gender ideology, the needs of women in a number of specific institutional actions to remove barriers in the labor market, and to symbolic and economic recognition of household work and care. The formula indicates the transfer of the center of gravity in the construction of the life path to an individual choice in the variant of synchrony or diachrony of events, the shift of external control over the life project to self-determination. The constituent elements of this concept are: a wide range of family forms, increased subjectivization, the search for compatibility of various significant areas of life under flexible working conditions, a way to temporarily coordinate the requests of various areas of life that need streamlining through the budget of time; request for quality of life in its subjective and objective dimension. At the same time, the concept of balance suggests the opposite: instability and imbalances, which are considered in the article with examples of established patterns of academic career in Europe and Russia. The working conditions under which the scientific middle class works are still unstable, if not precarious, and at the same time not very friendly to the family. The balance of life and work confronts with the factors of timing and contractual insecurity. The risk in anticipation of career growth to lose the opportunity to form a partnership and family, many women in universities regard as significantly high, reacting with interruptions in their careers from halfway through and not breaking through the glass ceiling of professors, or moving away / giving up fertile plans. The term “balance” itself refers to the normative idea of its necessity, discursively voicing modes of harmonization in the sphere of life and labor. In this sense, the balance of life and work potentially covers both the level of institutional support and the level of individual strategies. Conservation of life and labor imbalances in the academic sphere is related to the fact that structural obstacles and difficulties in achieving a balance of life and labor caused by the institutional context are reviewed by researchers and teachers in problem situations that need to be addressed individually. This individual strategy to overcome structural problem situations, although unintentionally, largely stabilizes the status quo
The paper provides an analysis of the dynamics of youth perceptions of integration processes in the post-Soviet countries. The study is focused on the opinions and preferences of young per- sons aged 18-24 living in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Tajikistan. Which countries are the most attractive for the young generations to live, work and study? Which countries are good to develop economic relations with, to exchange technologies with and to attract specialists from? What attitudes do youngsters have to- wards Russia, the U.S.A. and China? What do young people think about the Eurasian Economic Union, and how do they assess the potential for economic rapprochement between the CIS countries for the next five years? The paper provides the answers to these questions using the data of the annual Integration Barometer conducted by the Eurasian Development Bank in cooperation with the Eurasian Monitor (2012-2017 waves). The results show that the attitudes vary substantially depending on the economic and political situation in the world. At the same time, there has been a drop in youth interest in Russia and an increase in their preferences for Germany, the U.S., Turkey and China, whether it be an internship, courses or a job. However, young people from the Central Asia view positively the Eurasian Economic Union and appreciate the integration with the post-Soviet states. On the contrary, young Moldovans and Armenians increasingly turn their eyes toward Western countries and are less likely to cooperate with Russia in social, cultural and economic spheres.
The article is devoted to a story happened to one of the most awaited videogames over the last years called ‘No Man’s Sky’. The videogame has been developed for five years and during all this time it has been surrounded by hype and media frenzy that produced high expectations. The game was expected to be a breakthrough in the game industry, however when the game was released it received low assessments by the game industry media and negative reviews of the gamers. The developers were accused of not providing the options they showed in trailers. Based on theoretical resources of the platform studies and a notion of demonstration, the authors try to figure out why the game failed. The analysis of trailers and the YouTube users’ comments show that the game failed not as a consequence of direct lies by developers but due to understatement and non-informative character of the game demonstrations which led to various interpretations according to the work of imagination. This is also caused by the barriers that the forms of video game-play demonstrations have as they do not convey true game-playing experiences. On the other hand, the ‘No Man’s Sky’ failure is due to some YouTube specifics being a platform which lets the audience to participate in the creation of something of a ‘media version’ of ‘No Man’s Sky’ reality. The ‘media version’ outperformed the game itself in its grandiosity and scale. The problem was that the developers did not limit the growth of the ‘media version’, and it ended in game failure. Thus, one may talk of a multiple character of modern cultural objects with users participating in their creation.
The paper considers the relationship between anonymity and normativity on different websites. The ‘accounts’ concept (speech patterns which help the actor to explain personal or anyone else’s unsuitable conduct in a situation under assessment) is used to analyze normativity. The author describes the modern discussion concerning anonymity on the Internet and gives an attempt to explore the anonymity continuum based on the cases of the «Podslushano» project and #yaneboyusskazat flash mob. The «Podslushano» community moderators publish anonymous stories of users on behalf of community while the #yaneboyusskazat posts are published on authors’ personal web pages. At the same time, in the flash mob community normativity is formed which affects the social acceptability. So the study provides a comparison between various factors defining normativity and social acceptability. The position of the website on the anonymity continuum can set a range of social acceptability of content to be published on that website as well as the degree of conformity to the group norms of the website.
Based on the survey and data of semi-structured interviews with faculty in one of the leading research universities in Russia the article reveals key sources of work related stress for academics in Russia. Increasing requirements for academic performance, a large amount of administrative burden and disruption of work-life balance are among them. We argue that stress in Academia is determined by global trends caused by neo-managerial reforms of science and higher education, as well as by participation of universities in the race of international rankings. We also show that continuous character of academic work is associated with fuzzy boundaries between work and leisure, which make academic profession relatively stressful by itself. According to the study, the risk groups in terms of stress are young employees, and those who engage largely in administrative work. At the end of the article, we discuss the concept of stress in the field of academic work and raise the question about the ratio between the positive effects of stress and the risks of the negative impact it may have on the Academia.
Researchers of the traditional higher education system propose a number of factors affecting the admission to a university (barriers to enter) and factors affecting its successful completion (barriers to exit). Massive open online courses (MOOCs) available to any Internet user remove barriers to enter, because anyone can take these courses. But do all the users have equal opportunities to successfully complete them? Are the barriers to exit preserved for MOOCs? Binary logistic regression was used to determine the way that factors related to individual features of each student affect successful completion of online course. The study was based on the Coursera platform administrastive data across four courses of the NRU-HSE that were held from February to July 2014. The results of the analysis show that there is a strong correlation between successful completion of online course and the educational experience. The probability of successful completion of the course is higher among men with higher education diplomas, who have already taken online courses and studied similar disciplines.
This paper examines the connection between people's notions of economical situation and their economic behavior. This issue is considered on the example of forming up the notions of unemployment and their influence on workers adaptation in the labor market. Using the data of RMEE for 1994-2000 years the authors show that at the beginning of this period the fear of unemployment was forming up exogenously in relation to the real situation in the labor market. Along with actual unemployment it was a meaningful factor of lowering pressure on real wages. With the reforms development social learning of popula118" № 4 (66) июль-август 2003 Мониторинг общественного мнения tion decreased the importance of fear as an autonomous of unemployment adaptation mechanism in the labor market. The main conclusions of the paper are confirmed by econometric calculations using both MNK-estimations for cross-sectional data for particular years and estimations of panel regressions with individual effects.
Abstract. The structure of the life course of Russians is poorly studied; the only exception is demographic studies regarding the marriage status and age of child birth. Principles that define life trajectories should also be examined. The “adult’ category can be one in a number of important categories in the general structure of life planning. An agenda for future research is based on several case studies obtained during the longitudinal research of educational and occupational trajectories. Studying the process of moving to adulthood is an important resource to comprehend modern times. However another option is also possible. The concept of transition to adulthood can be considered as a phenomenon of the modern culture. The research prospects of the cultural sociology that uses structural hermeneutics as a method can serve these purposes. Structural hermeneutics refers to the analysis of the structure of senses both inter-subjective and collectively shared. The ambivalence of this category as well as the accumulated research data across countries suggest analyzing the “adult” category with regard to the life course structure based on the data of the Russian studies.
Online mode of data collection provides greater variability of questionnaire visualization tools than the traditional "paper" format. This determines that researchers should be aware about how various elements of the questionnaire design affect the quality of data collected via online surveys. This article presents an overview of the Russian and foreign studies on the answer to this question. We consider following aspects: (1) visual design of the screen, (2) layout of rating questions, (3) visualization of open-ended questions, (4) presentation of non-substantive response options. In conclusion we make a number of recommendations concerning the questionnaire design features that can help researchers to make their surveys more effective, and to increase the data quality.
Year-by-year more and more educational institutions offer various massive open online courses (MOOC). Simultaneously, the interest of online users in the offer keeps rising. To orient the users in the variety of courses ratings of MOOCs are developed based on participant satisfaction levels. However, the satisfaction level is not only influenced by the course content but also by the participants’ individual characteristics. As the courses are assessed by different groups of participants, the question arises as to how these ratings should be used to compare the courses. The problem is especially true for the MOOCs where participants represent a heterogeneous group. To study the relationship between the participants’ characteristics and their satisfaction with the courses the authors use the data of the surveys involving participants who took part in 13 MOOCs proposed by the National Research University Higher School of Economics on the National Open Education Platform. The surveys were conducted before and after the courses. Using the regression analysis the authors show that a number of individual characteristics are strongly linked to the level of satisfaction with the course content if its options are controlled. Important predictors are extrinsic motivation to take a certain course to get acquainted with its format and the level of knowledge before and after the course. Those participants who have higher initial level of knowledge are more likely to give poor assessments for the course compared to those participants who are less familiar with the topic. Thus, using the ratings to compare the MOOCs with each other would be wrong as the courses are assessed by different groups of participants. It is more advisable to draw up separate ratings which would reflect the assessments given by “advanced trainees” and “freshmen”.
The study reveals the essence of the involvement of Russian science in the world scientific community in terms of transition state and explores the degrees of involvement that help better understand its nature. The article analyses the specifics of scientific life, as well as its aspect related to the international communication; the author describes the specific features of the Russian scientific community that has led to problematisation. The author presents an alternative vision of the topic; this vision is not aimed at the problematisation, but at different circumstances it was caused by.