Социально-экономический кризис на пространстве России: проблемы населения и "очаги беспокойства"
In this article method of construction of living standards integral estimations for the region is considered. Special emphasis is laid on synthetic categories of living standards of population: standard of well-being, living standards of population, quality of social sphere. Convolution of individual indicators was carried out using Principle Components Analysis. For calculation of the integrated estimates of living standards of population in the Republic of Marii El, some generalized assessments were computed - indicators of advantages and regression, estimated as the ratio of the Republic of Marii El indicators values to the values of the corresponding indicators of Volga Federal District.
Based on the data of a representative poll performed by Institute of Megalopolis Humane Development in April of 2014 among 1516 parents of 1st through 11th grade students of Moscow schools, there are data being analyzed related to parents’ perception of preparation to and taking of SFT and USE. There are results given for groups of parents of school students of various ages: 1st‑4th, 5th‑6th, 7th‑9th and 10th‑11th grade students as well as a detailed information related to specific subjects of the school program. Most of those taking part in the poll believe that regular studies do not ensure passing of FST and USE with high grades with more than 30% of parents believing that additional classes would not allow passing with high grades either. Such expectations normally shape during the first years of their children spent in school. The major drawback for successful passing of FST and USE are believed to be poor training programs, whereas less than 20% refer to poor quality teaching. In parents’ view, students’ passing of FST and USE is accompanied by a series of challenges: starting from their persuasion being that exams are an inadequate tool for knowledge assessment to a fear of being unable to ensure they children a proper preparation to the exams. The authors believe that the issue of FST and USE has become a resource of social tension for families with children in a metropolis.
The article investigates the features of corruption during the Stalinist era 1946 – 1953. The author describes the types of corruption: bribery, the distribution of food products through the lists, creation of interaction networks between party officials, the assignment of state property, the exploitation of subordinates’ labor for private purposes, the use of insider information. Corruption of upper party officials coexisted with difficult living conditions of ordinary workers.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.