Фокус-группы: эволюция метода (обзор дискуссии на конференции ESOMAR)
The article is a review of the ESOMAR Qualitative Research Conference ('Qualitative ascending, harnessing its true value') that was held in Boston, USA, in November 2002. The focus is on the stateofthe-art qualitative research, and more specifically, on the focus groups as the most common and well-known tool in the research practice. Two basic issues are discussed: evolution of the method, and application of the focus group methodology in the emerging markets. The authors' conclusion, illustrated by the case studies reported at the Conference, is that the 'classic' focus group now undergoes the process of transformation towards the much softer and bricolage methodological techniques aimed to provide better insights into consumer motivations and behavior. The case studies that describe situation in the emerging or unstable markets (former Eastern Germany, Gulf states, Indonesia, Argentina) are reviewed from the perspective of their similarity with the dramatic processes going on in modern Russia.
The third topic of the lecture course «Firm-Level Empirical Surveys: Tools and Practice» is presented in this issue. The topic «Qualitative information: tools for collection and analysis of data» includes two lectures and describes existing methodology and application of qualitative research to firms behavior studies: in-depth interviews, case-studies and focus groups. Special attention is paid to organization of an empirical survey as a set of in-depth interviews with top-managers of enterprises including methodology, field-work procedures and questionnaires. Limitations and advantages of top-managers interviewing as a tool of collecting qualitative information and its possible distortion are discussed.
The manual includes the general orientation information on quantitative and qualitative methods, necessary for experts without basic administrative education. With basic education the manual will be useful for experts not only expansion and fixing of knowledge, but also the annex to actual problems of the organization and management. Its feature that it assumes updating, fixing and judgment of knowledge of the subjects studied earlier, on other forms and training steps. The manual will have practical value for the students who are training on master programs for the Management direction.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.