Неэфирные телеканалы и их аудитория
The article shows how from the middle of the XX century there was a reflection of the various factors affecting the value of the television audience. In the opinion of the authors of the article, originally factors of content and form of telecasts were conceived to attract the audience. Later there was a transition to a systematic understanding of the factors of both socio-cultural and physical nature, external to television production.
The television audience measurement (TAM) system in Russia has three main characteristics. First, Russia remains a huge, widely spread country with a variety of populations and cultures. This means that the "national" TAM system had tyo make hard choices in order to produce a "national" Russian public. Second, the Russian media model has evolved into something unique, different both from democratic media systems and from the old "totalitarian" incarnation of Soviet times. A strong authoritarian aspect has been discernible throughout the leadership of Vladimir Putin, since 2000, as have a number of neoliberal market economy practices. The short history of TAM in Russia is also related to the globalization of this particular kind of technology and knowledge. Two key players can be identified here: international advertisers, who exported the need for ratings, and the international measurement companies (today TNS), which tried to enter a new but, as we will see, encountered difficulty in this endeavour, which requires both neutrality and a balancing of conflicting interests not easily reconciled.
This article describes regularities of television audience migrations. the author gives a definition of television audience migrations and results the author's original classification of this category highlighting extra-channel, interchannel, and intra-channel types of televsion audience migrations. It is emphasized that a detailed study of television audience migrations has become possible after the introduction in the industry practice the automated audience measurement systems in which measurements using representative sample of TV viewer, made at a high frequency, and data users receive contunually one-minute agregated parameters of the audience, including the switching on and off the television sets (i.e. parameters of extra-channel migrations) and the transition from channel to channel (i.e. parameters of iter-channel migrations). Through studying the television audience migrations were discovered effects of rapid movement from channel to channel, including zapping, flipping, serfing et al. These discoveries allowed to form the concept of a television viewing clipping style. The author argues that the clipping style of TV viewing is stimulated, and to a large extent due to the advertising cutaways that makes a significant part of the audience to turn off the TV or switch to other channels, then often to come back to abandoned channel. In the general migration picture on TV the extra-channel migrations dominate, and comparatively rarely observed transitions from channel to channel.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.