Капитал здоровья старшего поколения: социологические данные для оценки процессов накопления и сохранения (на примере Томской области)
The relevance of the study consists in the need to define the category of health as a multidimensional phenomenon. The question on the appropriate methods for assessing health capital in the economy of aging is open; the most common method is the Michael Grossman model, which contains some disadvantages. Studies confirm the close correlation of the processes to accumulate and preserve health capital with social capital, institutional capital, which falls out of the direct approach to assessing health capital using the demand indicator, i.e. “spending” incurred by society on “health products”. The aim of the article is to demonstrate an approach to measuring the spheres of life to assess the health capital of the older generation based on the materials of the conducted sociological research. We used data obtained during the RSF research project aimed at assessing the processes of accumulation and preservation of the health capital of the older generation. The empirical dataset is the results of a sociological survey, Health Capital of the Older Generation, conducted in July 2022 (N=300, 55+) in Tomsk Oblast. We carried out a detailed analysis of the sociological research design, then we sorted out the subjective assessments of the respondents according to the proposed methodology and made conclusions. The results of the study are that the design of the sociological study Health Capital of the Older Generation made it possible to assess the processes of health care and health preservation from the standpoint of four areas of life and activity: (1) employment; (2) participation in social life; (3) independent, healthy and safe living; (4) opportunities and enabling environment for active longevity. We revealed that one of the main negative factors in the accumulation and preservation of health capital during older age is saving strategies caused by the low material status of the respondents. Material well-being negatively affects the ability to invest in health, but also the desire to do so (even if there are opportunities, for example, to do morning exercises). The facility of access to socio-cultural infrastructure, transport, medical and social services varies greatly in the district center and in rural areas, which negatively affects the general health of the respondents. Digital technologies have a positive effect on health, increasing the availability of social interactions and expanding the opportunities to actualize the untapped resource potential of the older generation, in particular, in the field of employment (remote work / part-time work), in the field of health (telemedicine / sports activities), in the social sphere ( communication with near and far circles).