The image of the garden, one of the most widespread in the world culture, is considered to be multifaceted, as the concepts of the ideal world which the garden embodies change with time. The present paper looks at the image of the garden in Anatole France’s cycle L’Étui de nacre, where three different epochs with their peculiar systems of values are represented, and garden is one of the most frequent images. The objective of the research is to ascertain the functions of the garden image by analyzing the transformations of the image. The analysis is conducted by pinpointing all representations of the garden, tracing their roots in the world culture and establishing the network of relations between the images. The first part of the cycle, which depicts the Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages, employs the garden image in several forms: a sacred grove which is chosen by hermits as a place for spiritual life, a garden of a rich villa, where its owner tries to hide from the tumult of political life, a fruit garden, which shows appreciation of cultivation, and a speculative paradise. This garden is mostly open to everybody who wishes to enter, and is a place where opposite systems of values can meet and live peacefully. The second part, devoted to the modern epoch, moves on to the image of an enclosed garden. It is embodied in the image of a monastery garden, hortus conclusus, which symbolizes Virgin Mary, and a fruit garden of a new Protestant type. These images reflect the heroes strive for Paradise and their desperate attempt to enter it. However, life tends to destroy their idyll, either encroaching on the garden or tempting the personages with Locus amoenus, a love garden. The third part, where the action takes place during the French Bourgeois Revolution, introduces and develops the image of the English romantic park, which is perceived by the heroes as a space for direct communicating with God, not through prayer, but through nature. They deliberately build a garden following Rousseau’s principles, but its safety is ruined by the revolutionary terror. The romantic park is substituted by a public garden suited for the ruling power, or is diminished to the space of a prison yard with a symbolic acacia tree in the center. The author of the paper argues that France reveals a profound knowledge of the world culture and the place which the garden, as well as flower and tree symbolism, occupies in it. Rather than creating an original garden image, the writer borrows stable and semantically loaded images from the world culture. The garden is one of the elements which are used to fully represent each epoch and its idea of happiness. The transformation and evolution of the image contribute to getting the author’s message across: no concept is full or ideal and can be understood only when surrounded by other representations of the same idea.
Sculpture has always been a purely masculine matter. However, history has known a number of women’s names in this art. One of them is Patience Lowell Wright (1725–1786). She molded her figures out of wax since childhood. After the death of her husband,to earn a living for herself and her children, she turned a hobby into a job. In the 17th century, the activities of professional sculptors in America were limited to the production of tombstones and nose pieces for ships. Patience’s sister showed how to model life-size figures. Patience decided to specialize in creating images of outstanding contemporaries. In short, a traveling exhibition (the first in the US) of figures of famous public figures was created. Two years later, the number of figures was enough to organize two permanent exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York. But on June 3, 1771, a fire destroyed many of her works and she decided to move to London. Owing to the patronage of Benjamin Franklin, she was quickly accepted into London society. She made many famous British figures including Th. Penn, Ch. Fox, W. Pitt, C. Macaulay. She had a friendly relationship even with the royal couple, but only before the start of the Independence War. The sculptor openly sided with the colonists. It is believed that she even sent spy information,hidden in her figures, to the members of the Continental Congress. Another sphere of Wright’s activities was the liberation of American prisoners that started with the “Platt Case”. After the struggle for independence resulted in an open conflict, Wright’s business declined sharply. Left without a job in 1780, she went to Paris, hoping to open a new wax studio. By making a bust of Franklin, she tried to find a way to Parisian society, but failed. In 1782, she returned to London and began writing to American leaders, including G. Washington and Th. Jefferson, for permission to make their models. By 1785, she decided to return to New Jersey. However, when preparing for the departure, she fell and broke her leg. A week later, on March 23, 1786, she died. Her sister Rachel was trying to get financial assistance from prominent Americans and the Continental Congress to pay for her burial, but to no avail. Ultimately, P. Wright was buried in London, and her place of burial is unknown now.
The paper is concerned with a comparative analysis of selected German and English fixed phrases with the somatic component Faust (Germ.) and fist (Engl.) aimed at revealing cross-language relations in terms of their identical and different componential structures of meaning as well as determining their national and cultural specificity. Overall, 28 German and 20 English phraseological units were selected for the further analytic investigation after being classified as nominal, adjectival, adverbial and verbal, with lexical and grammatical meaning of different parts of speech being prioritized. It should be pointed out that technical terms and German compounds were not included in the analysis. Based on the principle of interrelation between person and language, in this work we are guided by the idea of integration of linguo-cognitive and linguo-culturological aspects.
The article examines how the national identity is represented in J. Galsworthy’s “The Forsyte Saga” and “A Modern Comedy”. The choice of the novels for analysis is determined by the fact that being a realistic writer, Galsworthy thoroughly examines contemporary society but tries to find its roots in the Victorian epoch, which many contemporary historians and cultural studies scholars consider a key period in the formation of the English identity.
The term “identity” implies a compulsory presence of the category “Others”, contrasted to the subject and the category “We”, with which the subject identifies himself. In the analysed novels the category “We” is expressed through the images of English people (represented on the lexical level by the lexemes “English” and “British”), while the category “Others” is expressed through the images of foreigners (lexemes “foreign”, “French”, “American”). The above mentioned categories are also contrasted in the system of characters, where “Others” include not only foreigners by nationality (Helene Hilmer, Annette, Mme Lamotte, Prosper Profond, Anne, Francis Wilmot) but also those English people, who do not share basic English values and a set of typical English characteristics (Irene).
Both at the lexical and plot level “English” are evaluated predominantly positively, while “foreigners” are evaluated negatively or neutrally, but always as something alien, strange and puzzling. Besides, foreigners initiate conflicts that breach foundations of the English world of the Forsytes. The language often serves as a criterion to contrast English and foreign worlds (an example of it being the relations between a typical Englishman Soames and his French wife Annette).
The author’s vision of the English identity is realised through the basic English cultural concepts of NATURE and PRIVACY. For Galsworthy nature is primarily associated with a traditional rural England, which is represented by images of farms and countryside estates (Robin Hill, the Sussex Downs). The countryside is opposed to the image of a city (London), which hastened rhythm of life presents a certain danger to the traditional English lifestyle. The concept of PRIVACY belongs to the basic anglo-saxon values and accumulates ideas of the importance of a private space preservation. It is possible to state that within the novel the concept of PRIVACY interacts with that of HOUSE. The image of the house occupies a central place in the text and foregrounds the meaning of the idiom “an Englishman’s home is his castle”. There is a number of such houses in the novel: for Soames these are his father’s house, that of Timothy and later “Shelter”, where he lives with Annette and Fleur; Old Jolyon and his son find such a “castle” in Robin Hill. A private house as a private space, isolated from the outer world, is similarly important for the young generation (represented by Fleur) and even for English workers. In contrast, “foreigners” do not give such a significance to a house (e.g. Irene).
The article is aimed to clarify the contradictory nature of the urban atmosphere phenomenon by defining its’ nuances and the genesis of its’ appearance in social sciences. Such approach will help to conceptualize the phenomenon and will lead to the creation of the future urban atmosphere model suitable for further operationalization.
The research is represented by the theoretical analysis of works interested in urban atmosphere phenomenon in the field of sociology, phenomenology, management, literature, cultural geography.
The work can be divided into two parts. The first part describes the differences between urban atmosphere nuances, namely ambiance and atmosphere, and define them. Then the second part provide us with the information about ambiance and atmosphere origin and the process of its’ development from ancient times to this day. In the end of the article the necessity of taking into account the urban atmosphere shades, when dealing with model creation, is argued.
According to the analysis the atmosphere is invisible but is characterized by magnetic properties making the urban space attractive for living bodies. The ambience is produced by the atmosphere, but have the more pronounced qualitative properties which characterize the urban space. The ambience influence on our lifetime by mediating the relations between living bodies.
The consideration of the urban atmosphere genesis in different research fields showed that the atmosphere has been studied mainly within natural science and literature as descriptive quantitative phenomenon aimed to define the space of existence for living bodies. Whereas the ambiance, full of qualitative and tangible characteristics, has been appeared later and has been borrowed by a number of research disciplines (such as sociology, psychology, economics, management) as possible to be analyzed and slightly applied in practice.
According to the analysis the author reaches the conclusion that the urban atmosphere is the highly constructed phenomenon consisting of either atmosphere, or ambience. The second one is the qualitative continuation of the first one and the characteristics of both shouldn’t be overlooked when conceptualizing the phenomenon. The analysis also showed that the functioning principles of physical atmosphere and ambiance can be applied in the model creation. It is connected with the absence of explanation of urban atmosphere and ambience functioning by social scientists. The application of these principles from physics will provide the full scheme of urban atmosphere components interrelation and interaction.
The article describes the possibilities of organizing and using the crowdsourcing projects. The experience of the commercial banks in this area was analyzed. With the prospects of crowdsourcing, proposed a new form of organization of collective innovation - meritosourcing, which means the transfer of the functions most dignified, professional staff, combined into interaction network. Identified the possible forms of collective interaction, requirements for the organization of meritosourcing.
The article is an analysis of the political and legal situation in Central Asian khanates of the 18th c. as it was described by Russian travelers. The aim of the research is to clarify if the Islamic political and legal tradition was in fact the only normative base to regulate social relations in Central Asia as it is stated in the official legal documents and court historical chronicles of these khanates. The sources the author of the article used are travel notes and reports of Russian travelers (diplomats, traders, scientists) who visited Central Asian states in the 18th c.: Florio Beneveni (Bukhara and Khiva, 1724–1725), Karl Miller (Tashkent, 1738–1739), Dmitriy Gladyshev and Ivan Muravin (Khiva, 1740–1741), Shubai Arslanov (Tashkent, 1741–1742), Danila Rukavkin, Pyotr Chuchalov and Yakov Gulyaev (Khiva, 1753–1754), Philip Efremov (Bukhara, 1774–1782), Mendiar Bekchurin (Bukhara, 1781), Egor Blankennagel (Khiva, 1793–1794), Timofei Burnashov (Bukhara, with Alexei Beznosikov, 1795, and Tashkent, with Mikhail Pospelov, 1800), Dmitriy Telyatnikov and Alexei Beznosikov (Tashkent, 1796–1797). Our knowledge about the state structure of the Central Asian khanates of the 18th c. is based mainly on the information of Central Asian chronicles, but their authors (court historians and officials) often embellished the real situation. As for the law of these states during this period, it is described poorly and not impartially as main sources on it are official documents of khans’ chancelleries and the judicial practice of Shariat courts (cadis); they make an impression that the norms of Islamic law were the only legal base in these states. But if we use the information of Russian travelers in Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent of the 18th c., we could find quite a different situation. Most of their notes were already used by historians as sources on the political history of Central Asia and its relations with Russia, but still were not studied as a source on the state structure and law of these khanates. Meanwhile, these notes contain valuable and sometimes unique information on specific features and problems of the state structure and the legal system. Russian witnesses wrote about the weakness of khans’ (descendants of Genghis Khan) power, the influence of powerful high officials and tribal leaders, the problems in relations between central and local authorities as well as between khans’ administration and nomadic subjects of khanates who regularly recognized their vassalage to khans nominally. Diplomats and traders gave detailed characteristics of the legal regulation of trade, of the taxation system in the khanates. They also described the judicial system, where courts on the basis of customary law and khans’ courts widely functioned, as well as Islamic courts of cadis. Several travelers gave interesting information on the system of crimes and punishments. On the basis of the information of Russian travelers the author finds that the Central Asian khanates of the 18th c. widely used not only Islamic principles of governance, legal regulation and court procedure but also customs of Turkic-Mongol nomads and khans’ legislation.
The Life of St. Herodion Iloezersky (LH) is an unstudied monument of regional hagiography, which reflects the characteristics of this type of hagiographical texts. Life events of the Reverend seem quite trivial, if not to know their legal, economic and home background. The LH provides diverse material for the study of Russian hagiography in general and of the 17th century in particular, and of the local history of the White Lake region. Hagiographical text, which seems to have little information in terms of big history, is extremely important to local history and the history of daily life. The documentary legal materials complete the LH. In the spring of 1653, Archimandrite of the Cyril-Belozersky Monastery Mitrofan held an investigation, as a result of which a document was drawn up, recording the evidence of local residents about the events that were somehow connected with the Rev. Herodion. Accurate and legally significant record of evidence was the main task of the church investigation. The discovery of documentary materials for the preparation of the canonization of Saint Herodion, a variety of versions of hagiographical text, numerous documentary evidence about life of Ozatskaya rural municipality, where the saint was active, allows us to put the question of originality of the hagiographic text and of the definition of the rules, by which series of events reflected in the text of a legal document were converted to hagiographical text. Comparative analysis of the document and of the hagiographic text allows seeing some patterns of transformation of the legal document into hagiographical text. It shows that the story of an event being translated from the language of everyday life into the language of Kingdom of Heaven looses details, names of minor characters, dates, circumstances of the incident. Important is the fact that in the text of the life the central character of each story stands as far as possible, solo as a person interacting with a higher power, either directly or by means of only one saint, but never with the participation of other people who also fall into the category of circumstances without direct relation to the event. In the initial period of its existence hagiographical text was or could be addressed to the people who themselves were participants or eyewitnesses of the events described. In the stories about miracles in the LH between man and God there is the only mediator Rev. Herodion. Everything else, however important it may seem to modern readers and listeners, did not matter in the distant past (in their ordinary daily life). That is, the apparent causal relationship between events in one row, from the perspective of the compiler of the hagiographic monument and certainly in terms of audience LH was imaginary. Thus, the hagiographic text is subordinated primarily to one purpose: it must demonstrate the true (spiritual) nature of the event, and that makes all particular details totally unnecessary, including causal relationships that can only obscure the timeless meaning.
The article is devoted to peculiarities of national alcohol policy in pre-revolutionary and modern Russia. The state's desire to gain a sustainable income to the Treasury from the constant demand for alcohol was met with the need to preserve the health of the nation. Finding a balance between social needs and political ambitions manifested in the introduction of regulating the distribution of alcohol restrictions. The aim of the study is the identification of the prohibitions and permissions in the sphere of the alcoholic products retail trade, set in different historical periods, and the determination of the vectors of these measures system. The conclusion is maid about the traditional character of state intervention in the process of the market of alcoholic beverages functioning. In modern legal reality there are conceptual approaches to forming of "drinking" policy, but it is only a step on the long way to the ideal model of a fair balance of public and private interest in the organization of a market for such a specific product like alcohol.
As was initially suggested by data-driven teaching pioneers not only the researcher, but also the learner should be given the chance of studying language through corpus or get access to authentic linguistic data. Working on that assumption,the article elaborates on the potential of corpus analysis for the purpose of L2 teaching. Firstly, a succession of corpus tools (concordance, collocation search, corpus statistics etc.) is described with the view of actively using them in L2 classroom. Thus, condensed reading, concordance vertical scanning for lexico-grammatical profiling ( or statistically viable and corpus-verified collocation and colligation) and other teaching tools to develop L2 linguistic competence are being discussed. Secondly, the necessity of learner’s and teacher’s corpus competence is put forward, which is believed to be both an unorthodox and integrative approach to develop L2 language skills. The article advocates that corpus tools for collocation search together with colligation detection (or probable grammar structures) are powerful means to develop both language and research skills. The article sets some practical examples of possible learner-driven corpus research that should promote critical thinking and enable learners to interpret corpus data. Thirdly, based on our personal experience, the idea and practicality of compiling university – made corpora is evaluated. A brief comparison of a diversified corpus (such as the British National Corpus) versus a “home”-made corpus is provided.
Analysis of the evolution of theoretical approaches on the nature and content of organization management has showmen an important role of the classic, evolutionary, behavioural, institutional and strategic theories for the concept of innovation management development. A special place within these theoretical views belongs to the entrepreneurial approach (by P. Drucker), which is combining innovation and entrepreneurship in one technology management - entrepreneurial management. The conclusion has been made that up to now the concept of innovative management is under development. It has not yet become part of strategic management. The approach to innovative management existing in the Russian modern economic literature considers it only as a single (specific) function - as management of innovations. Accordingly, the implementation of this function directed to development and implementation of a type of innovation - product, technological, organizational, and marketing and others. Such a narrow view on management of innovations (as a single function) makes the content of innovative management scanty like entrepreneurial management. At the same time this narrow view does not correlate to the new format of the innovation process where researches are only a part of the whole project and the main focus is displaced to demand forming, chain supply construction, clients network creation. The conclusion has been made that there is a need for a broader view on the innovative management of organization like entrepreneurial management, for which a set of microeconomic factors: strategy and strategic control, organizational capital, financial resources, is necessary. Organizations strategy has two principal functions: to overcome the technological and market uncertainty. To perform these functions strategic control over resources by top managers and a system of incentives for innovative investment are required. Organizational capital for innovation exists in the form of functional and hierarchical integration of personnel; the system of incentives and remuneration methods generate collective learning. Strategy and strategic control, organizational capital and financial resources are closely linked in a dynamic process that is resulted in an innovation. This link is provided and supported by innovative management. The paper argues a broader view on the innovative management of organization as an interactive activity based on the feedback interactions (signalling management) and aimed at creating new competitive advantages within a firm/organization due to microeconomic factors. Combining and matching of these factors provide for an organization its competitive advantages due to competition in innovations. As a result, the organization is able to get Schumpeters rent. Based on this approach some principles for innovative management concept development are declared in the paper.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the Durkheim’s “The Division of Labor in Society” in the case of the sociology of emotions. Social solidarity problem is one of the fundamental problems of sociology. There is an opinion that it is impossible to resolve the social solidarity problem excluding emotions. “The Division of Labor in Society” is one of the main works in the field of social solidarity. Durkheim considered and characterized types of social solidarity. But in contemporary science, the authors prefer “The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life” for the analysis. It makes an omission in the study of origins of the sociology of emotions and the role of emotions in maintaining social solidarity. Durkheim’s ideas have rethinking and reflection in the work of the contemporary sociologists of emotions. The article demonstrates current authors rely on their arguments on the Durkheim’s ideas. The aims of the paper are to identify background of the sociology of emotions in “The Division of Labor in Society”, to present how Durkheim determined the social nature of emotions, their role in the description of the social solidarity types, what types of emotions are involved in creating social ties from the position of Durkheim. With the help of Durkheim’s ideas, we can identify the outlines for solving the problem of social solidarity.
We can make a conclusion that the role of emotion in the maintaining of social solidarity changes with the change of the social solidarity types in the Durkheim’s concept. Mechanical solidarity is based on common ideas, feelings; the individual is completely absorbed by the collective. Crimes arouse negative emotions such as anger, revenge, and shame, which are become instruments of protection. Sympathy exists only in the institutions of family and marriage. In opposition, organic solidarity is based on the division of social labor; the collective is replaced by the individual. As a result of changing social solidarity type, the positive emotions participate in its reproduction: altruism, sympathy, that going beyond the family and friendship and appearing in the labor relations, happiness. In the Durkheim’s concept emotions have to be common and collective for the reproduction of social solidarity. Kind of specific emotions doesn’t very important. Social solidarity can be destroyed by the loss of the collective nature of emotions. In conclusion, Durkheim’s ideas can be relevant for contemporary society and can be the basis for further development of the solution of the problem of social solidarity in the field of the sociology of emotions.
The article is devoted to the history of the formation of museums in the places of the former Gulag camps in the Perm region, primarily the "Memorial complex of the history of political repressions" in Kuchino village, better known as "Perm-36". The conditions of its creation and conflicts around the museum are considered, continuing until the change of its leadership in 2013. Drawing on the experience of working with the "negative heritage" in Europe after World War II, the article demonstrates the features of preserving and using such resources in Russia by the example of the Perm region, where were preserved the remains of the former Gulag camps. Unlike Germany and Poland, where the places of former Nazi concentration camps were turned into museums and memorial complexes as early as the late 1940s, Russia began to work with the legacy of the Gulag only after the collapse of USSR. In post-Soviet Russia, Stalinist camps are almost not preserved: most of them have collapsed from time, and the surviving buildings are most often at a distance from populated areas, especially in the north and north-east of Siberia. The main emphasis is the role played by former prisoners, guards and historians in creating museums. The article traces the differences in the perception of Stalinist repressions among the participants in the process of memorialization. So, in response to the creation in 1994 of the memorial complex "Perm-36" on the site of the former Gulag camp, where the Stalinist repressions and the Gulag were shown from the standpoint of the victims, on May 9, 1998, on the site of another previous camp in the village of Tsentralny was established another museum, its exposition tells the story of the correctional institutions and the camp schedule from the point of view of personnel and employees of the state correctional system. Prisoners in it are considered exclusively as criminals, regardless of the article on which they were convicted. Despite the fact that "Perm-36" in its structure is an analogue of the memorial museums on the sites of the former concentration camps of Nazi Germany, the approaches and conditions for its creation were completely different. In Europe, most of the former camps were restored and museumed at the expense of the Ministry of Culture of Germany, Poland and other countries where the concentration camps were located, while in Russia these were private proposals from below. This leads to the fact that the "different memories" of people about the Soviet camps of the Gulag system are represented differently in museums, reflecting opposing views and assessing the events of that time.
The article is an analysis of relations between the Kazakh ruling elite and Peter III, at first as the heir to the throne and then as the emperor of the Russian Empire. The aim of the research is to clarify what hopes and perspectives were connected by Kazakh khans and sultans with the new Russian monarch, why their expectations did not come true and how it was reflected in the correspondence of the rulers of Kazakhstan with the Russian emperor and other imperial authorities. The sources the author of the article used are, first of all, letters of Kazakh khans and sultans (such as Abul Khair Khan, his sons Nurali, Erali, Aychuvak, sultans Barak, Yulbars, Abulfaiz, Biy Janibek Koshkaruly) to Peter III and other representatives of Russian imperial elite – from Empresses Elizabeth and Catherine II to the governors of Orenburg. Chronologically, these documents cover the period of 1743–1764. The rule of Peter III was very short-term and, as it is considered in historiography, did not influence substantially the Russian history, and even made more harm than benefits; although there are attempts to revise the negative evaluation of this monarch nowadays. However, the interest in Peter as the heir to the throne was considerable among the Russian elite and among the national elites of the Russian Empire. It was reflected in the letters of Kazakh rulers sent just after his appointment the heir to the Russian throne. It is evident from these letters the representatives of the Kazakh elite expected from Peter Fyodorovich a more determined policy towards Kazakhstan than that of his aunt, both in administrative and in military fields. But with time, khans and sultans saw that the heir to the throne showed no interest towards his Kazakh subjects and no longer sent letters to him. When Peter III became the emperor, they resumed correspondence, but its tone changed substantially: Kazakh rulers demonstrated some condescension towards the emperor, explaining him what he should to do to “please” the Kazakhs. Moreover, Kazakh rulers addressed most of their requests not only to the emperor, but also duplicated them to other authorities – Chancellor Count Vorontsov and especially to Orenburg governors – as they understood that their fate depended more on regional authorities than on the emperor in St. Petersburg. The author finds that the rule of Peter III, despite being short, was, in fact, a turning-point in the Russian-Kazakh relations during the imperial period. It was then that the Kazakh rulers stopped to address their requests and problems to emperors and central authorities and began to interact closely with the frontier imperial administration of Orenburg and Siberia regions.
Despite of the dominant position of the largest retailers in the market, the demand for small retail formats still remains relevant. The problem of small forms of trade development is of particular interest for Russia. The article is devoted to the problem of new formats of small retail trade development from the perspective of stakeholders’ concept. In this regard, there are identified stakeholders of small retailers, their interests, goals andimpact. Based on the analysis of common goals and power of influence of interested groups, the article defines stakeholders with high potential of cooperation and power of influence, which are recommended to be considered as partners for the creation of industry alliances and other forms of cooperation. The author presents and substantiates the point of view that preferred directions for the development of small forms of trade are those that meet the criterion of balance of interests and exchange of resources between external and internal stakeholders. On the basis of the analysis such perspective directions of development as vending and franchising are determined.
The research is aimed at studying metaphorization in the scientific text representing different stages of the cognitive-communicative situation development: problem formulating, hypothesis making, substuntiating and inference drawing. Metaphorization is regarded as the author's creative act in a particular subject field. An attempt is made to analize metaphorical terms, to describe metaphorical models and the author's concept formation.