Политические предпочтения: эффект экономической уязвимости
This article investigates the factors influencing political preferences through three competing theoretical approaches. How political views form can be explained through socialization (political preferences reflect ideas about what is right and proper, absorbed in the process of socialization), a utilitarian view (political preferences as a reflection of the pragmatic interests of individuals), psychological mechanisms (reaction to uncertainty and threat). Using data from the Russian Logitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE University in 2015, we seek to understand which approach best describes the political preferences of vulnerable Russians. Several indicators were used as a measure of respondents' vulnerability: employment instability, fear of losing jobs, and the inability to secure their lives in the short-term future. Focusing on economically vulnerable respondents makes it possible to identify those social preferences that can be associated with the concept of protective benefits responsible for maintaining and strengthening social order. The political space we study is based on two axes derived from factor analysis and includes preferences in the economic sphere (role of the state and the private sector) and in the social sphere (attitude towards migrants). Our analysis reveals the importance of the subjective perception of vulnerability in employment and material well-being. The vulnerable respondents, who are afraid to lose their jobs, favor left-wing economic policies, and are less tolerant of migrants. Employment instability as such does not have a significant impact on political perceptions. In conclusion, we also discuss the limitations of our research.