ПАЛЬЦЕВОЙ ИНДЕКС КАК МАРКЕР ПРЕНАТАЛЬНОЙ АНДРОГЕНИЗАЦИИ И ЕГО ПРОГНОСТИЧЕСКАЯ ЦЕННОСТЬ ДЛЯ АНТРОПОЛОГОВ И ЭВОЛЮЦИОННЫХ ПСИХОЛОГОВ: «ЗА» И «ПРОТИВ»
The digit ratio [the ratio of the second to the fourth finger on the hand] is in the center of attention of specialists in various fields of science, primarily anthropology and evolutionary psychology. This interest is not accidental, and is explained by the possibility to apply the 2D: 4D index as a marker of pretanal androgenization. The reason for such a high interest in the 2D:4D as an indicator is primarily rooted in its non-invasiveness as a method and the high replicability of the results.
Results. The digit ratio is significantly lower in men compared to women within the same population, and varies markedly between populations. More and more data are accumulating on the relationship of the 2D:4D with personality traits associated with masculinity, and the ratio of male and female sex hormones, reproductive success, the ratio of male and female offspring in women, professional orientation and susceptibility to various diseases. Genetic data indicate the inheritance of the values of the digit ratio and the presence of a complex of genes associated with the development of the second and fourth fingers in embryogenesis.
Conclusions. Apparently, the discussion about the applicability of the 2D:4D ratio to test the "organizational hypothesis" of prenatal androgenization will continue. However, with all obviousness, this indicator should not be considered as an absolute marker of prenatal androgenization, but rather as one of the indicators of sexual dimorphism long with a number of other traits that differentiate within the population of males and females. The proposed review analyzes the main findings on the topic over the past 20 years, identifies the problems that have arisen and suggests possible directions to solve them.