Old versus new politics: the political spaces in Southern Europe in tiems of crises
The article focuses on the party political spaces in four Southern European countries (i.e. Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) since the onset of the Euro crisis. To understand the emerging conflict structures, it argues for the need to consider that these countries simultaneously face an economic crisis and a political crisis and that both crises have strong domestic and European components. Moreover, the major driving forces of change tend to be social movements and political parties that forcefully combine opposition to austerity and to “old politics.” This leads to a complex conflict structure shaped by struggles over austerity and political renewal. In this structure, divides over economic and political issues are closely aligned with each other. While this pattern emerges everywhere, there are distinct country differences. Empirically, the article relies on original data from a large-scale content analysis of national election campaigns in the four countries in the period 2011 to 2015.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
Over the years, Belarus has often faced difficult political and economic problems. With Russian or Western help, the Belarusian authorities have always managed to find a way out. The large scale of the structural economic crisis that engulfed Belarus in February 2011 has destabilized the political situation. The author estimates the political and economic consequences of the crisis in Belarus, and the possible role of external factors in solving the problem.
Dramatic events in Ukraine during 2013-2014 became the largest geopolitical crisis in the Eurasian space since the beginning of the new century, fraught with the collapse of Ukrainian statehood, economic crisis and territorial disintegration. These events have made significant adjustments to the perception of the Eastern Partnership program: today the latter is often perceived not so much as a promising promising initiative, designed to bring the flourishing of six focus countries, but as a project that can turn into political chaos, social rift and even the collapse of the state for its participants .
This article analyzes life satisfaction in Russia’s population over the last two decades, as well as its determinants, based on OECD methodology and data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It shows that in Russia, which during its transformational period went through each phase of the business cycle with high oscillation amplitude, life satisfaction is more closely connected to the main economic indicators than in countries that have not experienced similar economic and social shocks. The way life satisfaction and its main determinants are correlated in Russia is similar to what we see in several other countries, but the specific values and forms of these connections depend on the particular motions of the economic cycle in any given country, as well as the previous path (model) of its development.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.