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Источники норм, множественность нормативных систем и моральный релятивизм: объяснительные ресурсы социологической теории

The article examines the main sociological approaches to the theoretical interpretation of the intertwined arduous issues of modern sociology of morality – on the sources of legitimacy of multiple normative orders, on the role of morality as a universal intermediary in potentially conflicting relations between different normative systems (in particular, between state and non-state law, professional ethics, religion, bureaucratic organizational rules, etc.). Some promising directions of theoretical interpretation of the relationship between morality and law are outlined basing on a critical analysis and synthesis of classical and modern approaches to the problems of sources of norms and relations between multiple normative systems, in particular, between law and morality. In the context of the reconstruction of the argument against the position of moral relativism in the social sciences set forth by S. Lukes, I also consider the possibility of describing "moral" and "conventional" as analytically different dimensions of social norms, as well as the prospect of using the concept of "participating reactive devic