Российские учителя сегодня и завтра: результаты исследования
Status groups, carreer trajectories and identities of school teachers. High loyalty of teachers to their profession. The lack of differences between teachers of "prestigious" schools and "ordinary" schools. Commitment to the teaching profession is independent on the experience.
Many conflicts and negotiations can be viewed as a dynamic game, where parties have no commitment power. In our model, a potential aggressor demands concessions from the weaker party by threatening a war. The absence of commitment makes a continuous stream of transfers a more effective appeasement strategy than a lump sum transfer. Based on such a strategy, it is possible to construct a self-enforcing peace agreement between risk-neutral parties, even if transfers shift the balance of power. When parties are risk-averse, a self-enforcing peace agreement may not be feasible. The bargaining power of the potential aggressor increases dramatically if she is able to make probabilistic threats, e.g. by taking an observable action that leads to war with positive probability. This 'brinkmanship strategy' allows a blackmailer to extract a positive stream of payments from the victim even if carrying out the threat is harmful to both parties. Our results are applicable to environments ranging from diplomacy to negotiations within or among firms, and are aimed to bring together 'parallel' investigations in the nature of commitment in economics and political science.
The article deals with criminal-legal aspects of such restraint as commitment and house imprisonment, proposes measures for improving the legislative regulation of these restraints and their practical application, formulates conclusions concerning these problems reflection in mass media, as well as typical accusatory trends in this sphere of criminal-legal jurisdiction, their causes and preventive measures.
In the XIX century. by the Russian government collected, systematized and studied the rules of customary law Caucasian highlanders (adat). Adat, regulating property relations and to obtain official recognition applied to mountain verbal (folk), village (aul) and arbitral tribunals. Customary law Chechen and Ingush distinguished: the multiplicity of actors, the equality of «their» - members of the indigenous genera (Taipei), the limited capacity of «outsiders», difference rules in the mountains and on plains, low developed separate institutions, low levels of legal technology.
School textbooks published in the years 1900-2000 are collected and analyzed in the monograph. The rich experience of the Russian educational publishing, teaching content, is shown in changing depending on the historical period and the dominant ideas. Intended for historians, theorists and practitioners of education.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.