Российские учителя сегодня и завтра: результаты исследования
Status groups, carreer trajectories and identities of school teachers. High loyalty of teachers to their profession. The lack of differences between teachers of "prestigious" schools and "ordinary" schools. Commitment to the teaching profession is independent on the experience.
Over the past 60 years, the topic of social inequality has been one of the key to educational research. Since the 90's years of the last century, thanks to the advent of international monitoring, the main focus is on comparisons of different countries in terms of educational opportunities, as well as academic and social segregation in schools. At the same time, it is known that even within countries, especially those with a great geographical extent, differences in access to educational resources and in learning outcomes can be very large.
Our work complements the existing discussion on spatial inequality in education. In this paper, we analyze the hierarchical structure of the educational system in countries with a moderate level of centralization, when access to resources can vary at three levels: between schools in a municipality, between municipalities in regions and between regions. We analyze the variation of school ICT-resources, teachers’ characteristics, and students’ outcomes in Russian language, mathematics and computer science on between- and within-regional levels. For these aims, we operate a unique dataset of nearly 40 000 Russian schools.
Our results show the existing gap between Russian schools, municipalities, and regions in access to educational resources and educational results. The uneven distribution of resources between territories, as a result of unbalanced decentralized policy, creates a situation of “double penalty” or “double bonus” for students.
The article deals with criminal-legal aspects of such restraint as commitment and house imprisonment, proposes measures for improving the legislative regulation of these restraints and their practical application, formulates conclusions concerning these problems reflection in mass media, as well as typical accusatory trends in this sphere of criminal-legal jurisdiction, their causes and preventive measures.
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
In the XIX century. by the Russian government collected, systematized and studied the rules of customary law Caucasian highlanders (adat). Adat, regulating property relations and to obtain official recognition applied to mountain verbal (folk), village (aul) and arbitral tribunals. Customary law Chechen and Ingush distinguished: the multiplicity of actors, the equality of «their» - members of the indigenous genera (Taipei), the limited capacity of «outsiders», difference rules in the mountains and on plains, low developed separate institutions, low levels of legal technology.
The article considers the study of career management of software engineers working at IT Services & Software Engineering companies in France. Presented results were obtained from author’s empirical qualitative research (using methods: interview, observation, analysis of documents).
The central theme was the contradiction: as the occupation of software engineer is prestigious and popular, they must have various possibilities of career management but statistics revealed a high fluctuation of manpower, employees are unsatisfied of its place in company and at the IT-market.
Specific character of IT Services & Software Engineering companies and limited possibilities of advancement force software engineers to the regular changing of company – as a result employees are in position of forced mobility. This strategy of escape shows failings of IT Services & Software Engineering companies and of IT-market which is inherently unstable
School textbooks published in the years 1900-2000 are collected and analyzed in the monograph. The rich experience of the Russian educational publishing, teaching content, is shown in changing depending on the historical period and the dominant ideas. Intended for historians, theorists and practitioners of education.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.