Психология как ремесло социальных изменений: технологии гуманизации и дегуманизации в обществе
The article is devoted to the role of the language and education in foundation of humane society. Some methods and approaches offered in the article can help teachers to form positive thinking of their students who are part of humane society.
Collection of studies centered on personalities od the king (later emperor) Frederic III Habsburg (1440-93), his secretary, the humanist Enea Silivio Piccolomini, the future pope Pius II (1458-64), and their mileu.
Nowadays, Africa is involved in turbulent processes of transformation and globalization. However, the traditional way of life does not disappear but adapts to new conditions. The contributors study the sociocultural aspects of this phenomenon, as they manifest themselves in different countries of the continent.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.