In the article on the material of a qualitative research of the problem of a person»s adequate self-relation the unity of the theory, experiment and counselling/therapeutic practice is implemented. A case study research was assigned to explore such a qualitative inquiry as the person»s self-relation. It enables researcher to draw attention in detail to the peculiarities of a single case design which uses first to learn about one»s self; and secondly, to highlight the ethical tensions imbued in the execution of professional helping and supporting practice, or a means of evaluating and reporting upon efficacy.
Based on the definition of the terms «activeness» and «activity», the author proceeds to analyze the relationship between them, and demonstrates the place of activeness in the organization of activity: the dynamic material, procedural implementation and own movement of activity. A provision is noted that the movement of activity, which is usually hidden by nature, is able to take the form of a special activity that has as its motive, goal and objective the development of relations that prompted the initial («ol») activity to be performed. In this context, the concepts of «adaptability» and «non-adaptability» are defined. Adaptability in an activity is described by three equalities: the desire («I want») = the obligation («I demand from myself»); volitional efforts («I demand from myself») = situational necessity («the situation requires from me»); and claims («I claim») = acquisitions («I attain»). Based on these criteria, an empirical study was conducted and the author discovered that «on average» people tend to manifest adaptability in situations of achievement. Upon reflection on individual variations in the levels of adaptability (the «threshold of situational necessity»), the author identified the phenomena of «soft non-adaptability» in the direction of a given activity; significant positive correlations are observed between the redundancy of promptings to solve a problem, on the one hand, and the levels of self-efficacy, as well as life satisfaction, on the other. The phenomena of «acute» non-adaptability (free actions towards the unpredetermined) that are closely related to the category of «subjectness», are also discussed. The relationship between the concepts of «adaptability» and «pre-adaptability», «des-adaptability» and «supra-adaptability» («dis-adaptability»). The concept of «personal selection» is introduced and the phenomena of a personality’s resistance to reproduce itself in other personalities are considered (the reversed principle of natural selection).
The paper is devoted to the problem of digital life of personality. This study is based on the theoretical development of the Model of the topology of life by E.B. Starovoitenko. I proposed digital and objective shaped spaces in addition to the original Model. Besides I proposed to comprehend the new perspectives of the model of the genesis of significant I-Other relationships in the context of the total digitalization of social and personal relations, the gradual loss of physicality in these relations. The problems of communication, professional activities and relationships of personality in the context of the development of digital culture, which have become especially tangible due to isolation during the COVID-19 epidemic, are discussed.
The pilot study on prevalence of school bullying among high-school children in Russia is presented in the paper given. The authors of the study have constructed the bullying questionnaire basing on several English language inventories of bullying assessment, posse4ssing high psychometric indices. The results were acquired basing on the answers of 890 high school students (living in 5 Federal Districts in Russia, mean age – 16 years old) and contain data on prevalence of different types of bullying and their interaction, gender differences and socio-economic factors of victimization.
The paper presents the results of empirical research of the level of personality development and its links to variables of personality reflection and self-determination. Methods: Washington University sentence completion test, Differential test of self-reflection, Yu. Z. Gilbukh’s Questionnaire of personality maturity, Self-determination test, the Russian version of Causality orientations scale, Multidimensional Inventory of loneliness experience. In two studies with participants aged 14 to 25 years (N = 426), the positive associations between the level of personality maturity and systemic reflection, self-determination, autonomous causal orientation have been revealed. At the same time, non-constructive forms of reflection, external and impersonal causality orientations were independent of personality development. According to the research results, systemic reflection as ability and tendency to view oneself from outside and to understand the context of a situation and activity was both the only significant predictor of personality maturity on the short term scale (13 months), and a mediator between the openness to experience trait and the level of personality maturity.
The problem from the area of Personology of Self, being the most important part of general personology, is studied in this paper. The paper offers the model of basic features and abilities of Self. The role of ability of Self to be its own ability, the ability which integrates many intentions of “I can” type depending on life tasks faced by the personality, is stressed. Existential value of the task to be effective in dialog based on the intention “I express myself” is substantiated. The model of narration, the model of author’s reflection in the moment of narration and three-dimensional topological model of ability of Self to express itself in the dialog are offered.
In present work an attempt to unravel the mystery of consciousness issue is addressed to. This is done on the basis of the analysis of the mind and consciousness relationship; by bringing the term “thought” to the mind and consciousness contents determination; by considering the role of cognitive processes in forming the mind and consciousness contents; and by analyzing the reflection’s involvement in the self-awareness.
The paper introduces author’s perspective on the integration of psychological ideas regarding memory into the context of personality psychology and into the psychological theory of life. To conduct this integration the theoretical active memory model has been elaborated. The results of the modeling, which emphasize the importance and the role of memory in the context of individual life, are presented. Specifically, phase process of memory, means and qualities of mnemonic phenomena are discussed. The paper also describes how memory is involved in a process of “impressions” production. Following M.K. Mamardashvili, “impressions” are seen as complex personal phenomena, which can create and revive, renew one’s life. It is also shown that the active memory model may explain the connections between impressions, memory, and life; and how impressions and their recollection can positively affect one’s life.
The article considers the idea of values as motivational and semantic formations, which have, therefore, a complex structure and multilevel presentation in the inner world of personality. The reasons for the complexity of their understanding for the subject, the lack of existing methodological tools for their study, and, as a consequence, tools for their understanding are shown. The article suggests the format of gesture expression of value. It is shown that the expression of value in a gesture leads to a change in its evaluation in the direction of greater understanding, simplicity and closeness. The obtained results can be used for the project of creating gesture therapy.
The article presents a theoretical model, an author's research methodology and the results of a psychological study of the relationship of an individual to the close Other. A new approach is proposed to solve the problem of developing this relationship in the direction of its reflection and dialogical nature. A model of the genesis of dialogical relationship I-close Other is constructed, that is determined by the traits of I: reflection, dialogicity, the necessity of the Other (aspiration for people, benevolence), self-determination, self-actualization; the realization of the relationship in dimensions between-I-and-close Other, I-in-the-close Other, close Other-in-I and I-in-Myself-with-close Other; relationship resource to the Other in terms of vitality. In order to verify the developed model, an empirical study of the forms of the genesis of dialogical relationship I-close Other has been carried out by using the interview method to study the process of the relationship, some of standardized techniques that reveal the personal traits, techniques for determining the personal existential fulfillment. According to preliminary research, which requires verification and expansion, two forms of the genesis of the relationship I-close Other have been found: Form 1, that is constituted by the aspiration for people, benevolence, productive reflection, a dialogical realization of the relationship in the dimension I-in-Myself-with-Other, existential fulfillment; Form 2, that is constituted by self-determination, self-actualization, pseudoreflection, the realization of the relationship in the dimension I-in-Myself-with-Other, the low level of existential fulfillment
The article presents results of the hermeneutical study of the gender qualities of the personality completed in the framework of the contemporary personology. The study is devoted to justification of the potential of the hermeneutics of books for the discovery of the aspects of gender that are determined by the life of personality in culture. There are presented new models of masculine and feminine genders that are considered as «live» structures of symbolic, metaphysical, archetypical and role qualities of the personality. The article emphasizes that book texts about gender qualities in their differences, unity and dynamics when being the subjects of interpretation may become «cultural tools» of identity and self-cognition of actual people. The study emphasizes potential of hermeneutics in the system of qualitative methods of personology and in the development of counseling and psychotherapy of personality in the aspect of its gender organization, reflection, self-expression and self-assumption. The book strengthens its cultural impact on personality through engagement of its explicit content in theoretical suppositions and practice of personology.
The article focuses on investigation of personal attitudes toward oppositions of life. This research is following the principles of psychology of personal life attitudes and cultural psychology of personality. Some ways of explication of psychological knowledge about intuitive and reflexive personal attitudes to oppositions from cultural sources are suggested. As a data for hermeneutic analysis, texts of folk tales and Renaissance self-cognition text are provided. Author concentrates on self-developing and self-forming aspects of personal attitude to life oppositions.
The article substantiates one of the ways to develop reflective practices in the contest of personology. Theoretical grounds for substantiation are works by Mikhail Bakhtin, Roland Barthes, Julia Kristeva, Paul Ricœur, Jacques Derrida. There are explained opportunities for cognition and self-cognition of the personality provided by different types of texts. There is emphasized hermeneutical potential of the texts-works and texts-practices devoted to personality. There is introduced the notion of «perspective text» combining potentials of the mentioned types of texts. There is offered the author’s model of the text as the source of the personality’s word about self. It envisages ways of hermeneutical transition from interpretation of the text-work, explication and systemization of its basic ideas to building reflection techniques that provide individual self-cognition of certain aspects of self, life relations with the others etc. It is emphasized that this transition points to acquisition of the qualities of text-practice by the text-work as well as conversion of the work to “perspective text”. Experience of development of the reflection techniques for dialogical relation of personality to self, reflection of relation to the loved other, reflection of the expression in the dialog with important other became the solution to the problem of hermeneutics of the philosophical, philological, psychological, fictional texts as the sources of word about self.
The article presents the results of the study of ontogenetic aspects of ego in personal relation to the life oppositions. These aspects are unconscious in themselves. The ego is the source of the individual relationships. The early stages of its genesis determine the specificity of personal relationship to the Self in adulthood. The idea of Ego arises from the need of an infant to cope with the opposition appearing in its life at the moment of birth (tension - relaxation, wakefulness - sleep, "my" - "other") is the basis of the work. It is stated that Ego develops while operating with complicated oppositions of life, fixes "successful" operations with them in the form of defensive processes and unconsciously uses the same action with the opposition in solving cognitive tasks. The article grounds the theoretical connections between personal operations with oppositions, defensive processes and the type of adaptation. The methodology of empirical study of these connections is offered.
Forms and variants of reflection on life events are examined in the article. The concept of an event is considered in the context of psychology of life. Author suggests the structure of an attitude toward an event and describes some vectors of life attitude dynamics as a result of reflection on life events.
«Attainment of oneself» has not been systematically examined in psychology. Since that, the paper is aimed to reveal the importance of studying it in actual sociocultural context and the humanities. The «attainment of oneself» is considered as holistic, mediated by reflection “I” abilities realization in the field of leading life relationships. «New pesronology» is research area, and pesonological hermeneutics is used as a method. The reflexive model of “I” abilities towards the Other is presented. It’s application for analyzing the process of attainment of oneself in love relationships is demonstrated.