Рабочее время и ролевые напряжения сотрудников современного российского университета
The article touches upon the changes in roles within the academic profession in Russia arising from the education and science reform. The analysis is made through the example of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE). Both quantitative and qualitative data is used to suggest a typology of faculties based on their work time allocation. The typology includes five types of faculties: teacher researchers, teachers, researchers, “universal soldiers”, and experts. Different types show different levels of atisfaction with their work time budget: those who do a lot of teaching and administrative work tend to be less satisfied. This can be explained by the changes in the system of faculty certification in Russia and by how academic staff responds to those changes. Interview results are used to highlight the typical work time allocation problems faced by faculties. Those include a low degree of freedom to manage one’s own work time, the lack of boundary in work-life balance, excessive teaching load, an increase in unscheduled tasks, and the problem of workload delegation requiring high research and management skills.
In this chapter questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can ones relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This chapter differs from traditional ways of thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. First of all, contrary to the widespread self-help book based approach to time from the perspective of time management, this chapter reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusing on the implications of this research for organizations and individuals. Secondly, it highlights the limitations of believing that time is infinitely stretchable and defined good time use as one that results in increased well-being, rather than productivity at the expense of well-being. Thirdly, although the work place is in the centre point of the chapter, it looks at time use from a broader perspective of life and work-leisure balance.
A range of evidence is considered, based on both objective and subjective time use studies suggesting specific measures to increase well-being through time use, first of all, at workplace, but also touching on other domains, such as media, leisure, etc. It is demonstrated that the studies of objective time use seem to be slightly less relevant, because the associations between time spent and well-being depend strongly on the person: what may be right for one, may be detrimental for the other. Some interventions, though, may be good for most people and beneficial on the large scale, such as introducing work time caps. Good time use results from choosing activities that help people to satisfy their basic needs and are directed at intrinsic goals (helping other people, establishing relationships, developing and growing as a person, maintaining health and balance in one’s life). A pathway to increase basic need satisfaction and, as a result, happiness associated with good time use, is by supporting autonomy: giving people more opportunities for choosing and working towards goals that are self-congruent and intrinsic, benefitting both oneself and society.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
The article discusses the establishment of professional standards across community of German universities philosophers. The paper analyses a nature of public scandals based on the taking away the right to teach at universities such well-known intellectuals such as David Friedrich Strauss (1835), Ludwig Feuerbach (1836), Bruno Bauer (1842), and Kuno Fischer (1852). I propose a thesis that repressive measures were the result of conflicts related to the methodological upgrading of the discipline. I show that the severity of social controversy was caused by the peculiarities of the requirements to academic employees. The development of professional solidarity during the second half of 19th century helped smooth the severity of labor disputes, which, however, did not protect the academic community of ideological pressure by Nazi regime.
The Global Future of Higher Education and the Academic Profession focuses on the all-important emerging BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) nations by analyzing the academic profession and particularly salaries and contracts. The professoriate is key to the success of any academic system, and this is the first book to carefully analyze academic systems and the academic profession.
The academic profession must be adequately paid, and appointments to academic jobs must be based on merit and provide an effective career path for the 'best and brightest' to be attracted to the profession. The BRICs show a variety of approaches to academic careers—and none provide globally competitive salaries. China and Russia, in particular, pay academics poorly. Using purchasing power parity, this book is able to accurately compare the actual purchasing power of the academic profession. The book also analyzes how professors are appointed and promoted.
While the BRICs may be emerging global economic powers, their academic systems still face significant challenges.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.