Based on the data of cohort longitudinal study “Educational and Career Trajectories”, factors affecting absolute and relative expected returns on education (ROE) are investigated.Surveys of Moscow students show that academic performance assessed by Unified State Exam (USE) scores is an important predictor of students’ salary expectations. Besides, expected ROE also correlates positively with college selectivity. Students in private colleges expect to be paid lower than those in state universities. Social and cultural capital of the family (parental education, number of books at home) may influence salary expectations indirectly, through academic performance. Students from wealthier families expect to have a higher ROE than their disadvantaged peers, and so do boys as compared to girls. Students working part-time expect to be paid higher than non-working students after graduation but anticipate a lower return on investment in relative terms. Citation: Prakhov I. (2017) Determinanty ozhidaemoy otdachi ot vysshego obrazovaniya v Moskve [Determinants of Expected Return on Higher Education in Moscow]. Voprosy obrazovaniya / Educational Studies. Moscow, no1, pp. 25-57.
This article provides an empirically-based insight into the operation and impact of socially-oriented entrepreneurship as an educational tool at the Russian higher education institution, ITMO University (St Petersburg). The experience suggests that consciously placing stress on the social and ethical dimension of entrepreneurship education provides a strong motivational factor which develops many students’ interests towards contributing positively to society. The effective engagement of students in community projects creates a synergy between the project’s practical objectives, students’ awareness of self, and helps to refine the students’ own life goals and values -invaluable for setting a career strategy.
This paper is a review of studies that investigate factors that determine starting wages of university graduates. The focus is laid upon the works addressing the question: To what extent can starting graduate wages be indicative of the quality of education received? We discuss the theoretical conceptions shedding light on the reasons for differences in wages of fresh graduates: the theory of human capital, the job market signaling theory, the theory of compensating wage differentials, and empirical studies aimed at measuring the influence various factors have on the size of starting wages. An analysis of different studies has shown that, despite the important role played by the quality of education, there are many other factors that can have an impact on wages. Such factors include heterogeneity of graduates and jobs, market imperfections, individual preferences of graduates and their strategies of entering the labor market. The provided review and critical analysis of studies designed to assess the correlations between the quality of higher education and the level of starting wages for graduates allows us to define the general requirements to data quality in case of Russia adopts the system of university graduate monitoring.
Analyzing the most recent historical studies and sources dating back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the article reconstructs the fundamentals of degree awarding practices used in German universities of the Early Modern Period to understand whether they are comparable to present-day degree fraud practices. It examines into the academic degree concepts accepted in the pre-Modern Europe, analyses master’s and doctoral theses of the time, discusses the problem of their authorship, and traces back changes in the defense procedure as well as the historical and cultural factors which advanced the development of the modern doctoral degree. As long as social, cultural and intellectual transformations that prompted the emergence of the modern academic degree had only been completed by the beginning of the nineteenth century, the study considers it unreasonable to apply the currently existing academic and ethical criteria to the degree awarding practices of earlier historical periods. It does not mean fake degrees were a rare case or didn’t exist at all in the Early Modern Europe — it just means that academic fakeness was understood differently way back then.
Academic dishonesty among university students is a major problem for higher education and has negative economic impacts in a lot of countries including Russia. While exploring why students choose dishonest ways of obtaining good grades instead of getting involved in the learning process and acquiring as much knowledge and experience at the university as possible, most researchers focus on academic dishonest practices, ignoring the reasons for and factors of honest learning behavior. We regard student engagement as the opposite of academic dishonesty and propose a conceptual model of how academic honesty at the university influences various aspects of student engagement in learning. We conduct an empirical study to test the hypothesis on the correlation between characteristics of honesty at the university and parameters of student engagement suggested as part of the conceptual model. We use the data collected by the Monitoring of Student Characteristics and Trajectories carried out in universities included in the Russian Association of Leading Universities in Economics and Management. Having analyzed the data on management and economics students in eight Russian universities, we conclude that the suggested hypothesis has been largely confirmed, and the proposed conceptual model may serve a productive basis for empirical research on the correlation between academic environment parameters and student learning behavior.
Not dissimilar to many other countries, migration in Russia has a pronounced age-dependent pattern with the peak intensity at the age when people obtain higher and professional education. In this paper, we analyze migration intensity at student age (17–21) using three sources of demographic data with regard to their key opportunities and limitations. We compare the migration attractiveness of Russian regions in three ways. First, we apply APC analysis to the current migration statistical data, separately for two periods: 2003–2010 and 2011–2013. The reason for sampling these two periods is because there was a significant change in the migration statistics collection practices in 2011. Second, we use the age-shift method to analyze the data of the 2002 and 2010 Russian censuses. We offer a way to refine the census data by discarding the non-migration-related changes in the age-sex structure. Finally, we use information about the ratio between the number of school graduates and that of full-time high school enrolments in the academic years 2012/13 and 2013/14 across the regions. Based on the four indicators of migration intensity (intercensal estimates, statistical records for the two periods, and the graduate-enrolment ratio), we develop a rating of Russian regions in migration attractiveness for student-aged youths. A position in this rating depends not only on the level of higher education development in a region but also on the consistent patterns of interregional migration in Russia. The regions in the European part of the country have a much higher chance to attract migrants at student ages.
The paper presents a theoretical reconstruction of Lev Vygotsky’s project of theory of personality development and highlights Vygotsky’s relevance and heuristic value for the personality psychology of our days, especially positive psychology. The authors focus on several aspects of Vygotsky’s heritage. 1. General concept of personality within a non-classical framework. 2. The idea of self-mastery as the central explanatory concept and its relation to the modern concept of agency. 3. The role of self-reflective awareness in personality development. 4. Personality development pathways in challenging conditions. In Vygotsky’s works personality was implicitly constructed as the most integral higher mental function, while self-mastery or self-regulation was its central feature. Vygotsky’s principle of mediation states that the structure of human activity is mediated by physical or mental tools that break the S—R links and make it possible to master one’s own behavior and mental processes. By utilizing speech as a system of signs that enables the process of mastering the psychosocial reality, self-reflection makes a new basis for more complicated forms of higher mental processes that possesses more degrees of freedom as compared with the lower ones. The law of compensation is discussed in the context of aggravated conditions of personality development, where personality answers on the social boundaries, and thus achieves alternative trajectories of development. The sociocultural paradigm is thus consistent with modern thought of positive and personality psychology.
The study aims to find out how plagiarism and cheating as dishonest practices correlate with personal characteristics of students (e. g. their involvement in learning and research activities) and specific features of the learning environment. The survey of university students and professors conducted as part of the 2014 Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations provided the empirical basis for research. The impact of factors was assessed using two binary logistic regressions with response variables describing presence/absence of cheating and plagiarism experience. We show that these types of academic misconduct are not affected by whether or not the university applies formal or informal plagiarism checking techniques. Professor intolerance to cheating and willingness to take strict punitive measures appears to play a more important role in preventing academic dishonesty. Probability of using dishonest practices is also decreased by such factors as intensive preparation for classes, confidence in working in one’s field of study in the future, orientation towards the quality of education instead of its accessibility when choosing university and major.
This paper analyzes the possibility of predicting efficiency of learning in a higher education institution based on results of the Unified State Exam (USE). In particular, the authors test the hypothesis that USE results in different subjects are equally efficient predictors of further student performance. Methods of regression analysis have been used to assess how preliminary examinations (both total USE points and points in specific subjects) affect academic performance in higher education. The research involved about 19,000 students enrolled at five Russian higher education institutions between 2009 and 2011. As long as the sample included institutions of different profiles, individual regressions were calculated for each faculty. A meta-analysis of regression coefficients was performed later to bring the data together. Average firstyear grade was used as the key university performance factor. It was found out that USE points were only related to performance in the second and the subsequent years through performance in the first year, i. e. indirectly. The research results allow to conclude that predictive capacity of total USE points is high enough to accept this examination as a valid student selection tool. The explained variation in university performance varies from 15 to 35% in different faculties. Predictive capacity of particular subjects making the USE total points is relatively the same, but USE points in mathematics and Russian are often the best predictors of performance. The paper also analyzes the relation between USE points and another student selection tool — results of academic competitions in specific subjects.
As massive open online courses (MOOC) rapidly invaded the education services market at the beginning of the 21st century, a new trend emerged in global education. In the era of globalization and digitization, MOOC acts as an efficient tool to promote universities in the international educational arena, popularize national cultures, and raise additional funds. This is why a lot of countries, including Russia, have entered the race for online courses. Despite all the focus on MOOC in global education, the proportion of studies analyzing the MOOC market and the prospects for MOOCs in the Russian context is rather small. This article mainly seeks to describe the MOOC market and behavioral patterns of MOOC providers in the international and national online education markets as well as to classify MOOC players based on open source data collected from online platforms. As a conclusion, platform data analysis findings are used to identify vacant niches in the MOOC market, and possible avenues of Russian providers’ development in the international segment are assessed. Several data sources are utilized to solve the study objectives: articles, reports, official MOOC-related documents, information from online platform websites, a body of quantitative data collected from two leading online platforms, and a base of quantitative data from the Class Central aggregator, which contains information on MOOCs offered by several major online platforms.
This study explores the link between academic research, extracurricular engagement and the development of critical thinking of undergraduate students using a single statistical model. Empirical basis of the research was provided by the results of the Student Experience in the Research University (SERU) survey conducted in one of Russian national research universities in 2017 (N=3,344). Binary logistic regression reveals a statistically significant relationship between the development of critical thinking and student engagement in learning, research and extracurricular activities, higher involvement corresponding to better critical thinking skills. The findings may be useful for developing curricula, allocating student workload, and devising new initiatives for university students.