A gamification effect in longitudinal web surveys among children and adolescents
The paper measures a gamification effect in longitudinal web surveys among children and adolescents 7-15 years old. Two waves of the study were conducted using a volunteer online access panel in Russia among 737 children. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions in the first wave without changing the treatment in the second wave: (1) a text-only survey, (2) a visual survey and (3) a gamified survey. Though in the first wave of the study respondents found it more enjoyable and easier to complete the gamified survey, no differences in participation rates were found between the conditions in the second wave. Contrary to expectations, a higher breakoff was found in the gamified condition. Moreover, it produced lower test-retest reliability correlations than the text-only and visual conditions in all survey questions. The promising gamification effect found in the first wave of the study faded in the second wave. It seems that implementing gamified elements in longitudinal web surveys might differ from the implementation of gamified elements in cross-sectional surveys.
The results of the Russian Census of 2010 lay on the table several topics requiring further discussion. Prerequisites for this discussion are the change of the administrative-territorial structure of Russia after the reform of municipal government in 2006 and the amendments to the Census Law made prior to Census 2010. During 2002-2010 increase in rural population was almost twice higher than that in urban areas: +11% and +6.3% correspondingly. Rural population increased up to 30-50% in some municipalities, while changes of the urban population were fairly minor or even negative over the intercensal period. This significant rise in the rural population could be related with changes concerning data capture of the population living in collective households. This ‘non-demographic’ factor distorts denominator for demographic rates for municipalities, affects on an allocation budget funds depending on the population in the municipality.
The authors examine children’s access to and caregiver’s satisfaction with organizations that provide leisure time activities for children on Saturdays. The authors argue that access and satisfaction are a function of families’ financial, cultural, and social capital. Using data on 1,036 households in the Phoenix metropolitan area in 2003–04, the authors found that families’ financial and cultural capital affected whether or not children participated in activities organized by organizations, but family ties to the organization directly (e.g., either worked there, volunteered, donated) resulted in caregivers being more satisfied with the services. The authors also found that the benefits of network closure (caregivers knowing the parents of the other children on site) were greater the riskier the activities of the child (e.g., sports or cheerleading). Contrary to the authors’ expectations, having family or friends in the area did not affect caregiver’s satisfaction with the child’s provider.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.