Применение численных методов для оптимизации цепей поставок с непрерывно начисляемыми штрафами
The possibility of using approximate approaches for solving supply chain optimization problem with continuously accrued fines is discussed. The problem was investigated by numerical simulation for the case of exponentially growing fines, when a logistic operator must deliver the cargo to several points. The vehicle was allowed to move from any point to any other point. To solve the problem we used a so-called “Monte-Carlo” method. Numerical simulations showed that the variation of the parameters of the optimization model leads to a change in the optimal order of visiting points. It is shown that it is possible to find a solution that ensures the order close to the optimal. The proposed method, in contrast to the other known approaches, can be easily generalized for the case when functions determining fines in each point are different for different delivery points.
We show the results of a statistical study of the complexity of the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP) obtained by processing a specially generated pool of matrices. We show that the normal distribution can serve as an approximation to the distribution of the logarithm of complexity for a fixed problem dimension. We construct a family of probability distributions that represent satisfactory approximations of the complexity distribution with a dimension of the cost matrix from 20 to 49. Our main objective is to make probabilistic predictions of the complexity of individual problems for larger values of the dimension of the cost matrix. We propose a representation of the complexity distribution that makes it possible to predict the complexity. We formulate the unification hypothesis and show directions for further study, in particular proposals on the task of clustering “complex” and “simple” ATSP problems and proposals on the task of directly predicting the complexity of a specific problem instance based on the initial cost matrix.
The classical Branch and Bound algorithm for the travelling salesman problem, presented in 1963 by Little J.D.C., Murty K.G., Sweeney D.W., Karel C., is nowadays one of the most popular algorithms to find a minimum Hamiltonian cycle in a complete graph. There are many literature references having an algorithm pseudocode with comments. However, there are some special cases which are not discussed in these references. One of these cases is an-alyzedin this article.
The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a fundamental task in combinatorial optimization. A special case of the TSP is Metric TSP, where the triangle inequality holds. Solutions of the TSP are generally used for costs minimization, such as finding the best tour for round-the-world trip or construction of very large-scale integration schemes. Since the TSP is NP-hard, heuristic algorithms providing near optimal solutions will be considered. The objective of this article is to find a group of Pareto optimal heuristic algorithms for Metric TSP under criteria of run time efficiency and qualitative performance as a part of the experimental study. Classification of algorithms for Metric TSP is presented. Feasible heuristic algorithms and their prior estimates are described. The data structure and the details of the research methodology are provided. Finally, results and prospective research are discussed.
It is shown that the logarithm of the complexity (number of nodes in the decision tree of a branch and bound algorithm) of the individual traveling salesman problem is approximately normally distributed. We use a linear regression model (logarithm of the complexity — standard normal distribution) to estimate parameters of normal distribution, which fit the sample. Borders of the interval, which contains 90% of the sample of the logarithm of the complexity, are also given.
The routing problems are important for logistic and transport sphere. Basically, the routing problems related to determining the optimal set of routes in the multigraph. The Chinese postman problem (CPP) is a special case of the routing problem, which has many potential applications. We propose to solve the MCPP (special NP-hard case of CPP, which defined on mixed multigraph) using the reduction of the original problem into General Travelling Salesman Problem (GTSP). The variants of CPP are pointed out. The mathematical formulations of some problems are presented. The algorithm for reduction the MCPP in multigraph into GTSP is shown. The experimental results of solving MCPP in multigraph through the reduction into GTSP are presented.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management