Университеты в условиях рынка. Коммерциализация высшего образования
The article is devoted to assessment of campus climate towards LGBT in Saint Petersburg universities. Derogatory laws and public rhetoric towards LGBT in Russia stipulate significance of the topic. Empirical data reveal a generally unwelcoming campus climate in the universities with few exceptions. Students, professors and faculty engage in maintaining stereotypes about LGBT. LGBT issues are hardly ever studied as part of student research efforts or embedded in curriculum content.
Using two representative for Russia surveys (“Person, Family, Society” for research models building and “RLMS-HSE” for auxiliary, descriptive analysis), we analyzed the differences in the life courses of Russian men who served and did not serve in the army. For these two groups of men, we compared the ages and sequences of the most important starting events (separation from parental home, first job, obtaining an education of highest level, first cohabitation, first marriage, and first child). We constructed socio-demographic events for these men at the age of 15 and at the moment of the survey “Person, Family, Society).
Our results revealed that the ones who served in the military have more socio-economic and demographic events than those who avoided military service: men with military experience start adult life earlier and more intensively. The mechanism of the selection to the military services changed: since the 1990s, served men are mainly children of parents who did not get higher education and did not occupy senior positions in the period of their children socialization. After dismissal from military service, men often work and live separately, while avoided the army study and live with parents.
The paper addresses the questions of data science education of current importance. It aims to introduce and justify the framework that allows flexibly evaluate the processes of a data expedition and a digital media created during it. For these purposes, the authors explore features of digital media artefacts which are specific to data expeditions and are essential to accurate evaluation. The rubrics as a power but hardly formalizable evaluation method in application to digital media artefacts are also discussed. Moreover, the paper documents the experience of rubrics creation according to the suggested framework. The rubrics were successfully adopted to two data-driven journalism courses. The authors also formulate recommendations on data expedition evaluation which should take into consideration structural features of a data expedition, distinctive features of digital media, etc.
Skill mismatch implies discrepancy between the skills of job candidates or employed workers and job requirements. Types of mismatch are identified based on three criteria: quality of mismatch (surplus vs shortage), reporting party (employer vs worker/candidate), and type of skills (cognitive vs technical). Differences in types of skill mismatch account for considerable variation in qualitative interpretation and quantitative measurement. The problem of skill mismatch has been widely debated across the OECD countries, yet it remains understudied in Russian research literature. The issue raises concerns among education and labor market researchers as well as practitioners, so this article analyzes the available findings from the prospective of their potential use by educational institutions being the key consumers of data on skill mismatch and the ones that should tackle the problem. Five types of skill mismatch are identified, along with the specific challenges of measurement and interpretation. The article describes three methods of skill mismatch measurement to be selected as a function of which type of skill supply and demand data is used: indirect, objective direct, and subjective direct measurement. It also classifies methods of measuring the cognitive skills gap in the major cross-national studies: PIAAC, STEP, and OECD Skills for Jobs Database. It transpires that cross-national comparisons of cognitive skills mismatch mostly have to use a mixed approach due to limitations typical of cross-country research, such as the lack of objective data on skills demand and relying on subjective or indirect data alone. For this reason, the results of most cross-national skills m
The goal of the paper is to present the currently available quantitative data on transitions to adulthood in the North Caucasus. Based on the results of the 2013 all-Russia survey 'Person, Family and Society', the North Caucasus is compared to other regions of Russia, with a special focus on the sociodemographic and socioeconomic events related to in the transition to adulthood. By sociodemographic events, we mean sexual debut, first partnership, first marriage and first childbirth. Socioeconomic events include completing education, separation from parents, and gaining one’s first employment. The quantum, timing, tempo and sequence of these events were compared for residents of the North Caucasus and of other regions of Russia born between 1970 and 1994. We discovered that in the North Caucasus the transition to adulthood follows a more traditional standard than in other regions of Russia. Specifically, in the North Caucasus the interval between marriage and birth of the first child is shorter; marriage is much more widespread than partnership; and childbearing takes place more intensively and at younger ages. Gender asymmetries in sociodemographic events are more pronounced in the North Caucasus than in other regions of Russia. Nevertheless, the data also shows certain demographic modernization in the North Caucasus. Thus, men (but so far not women) of younger generations show a larger variety of sequences of the events compared to elder generations, so that the obligatory norm for transition to adulthood is replaced by a variety of life paths.