Университеты в условиях рынка. Коммерциализация высшего образования
There is a gap in knowledge in studies in innovative entrepreneurship development regarding the required level of education for innovative Russian entrepreneurs, which is necessary for independent business development in Russia. This paper attempts to find out extra managerial and innovative skills that are useful for further development of new innovative enterprises. To do this we made a survey of professional experience and education of Russian startup founders. We collected 92 CVs, which are our base for this research. Results are following: the majority of innovative entrepreneurs work in IT, they have a higher educational degree in Computer Science and Mathematics, and they have a professional experience including managerial one in large firms. The minority have an education related to innovative entrepreneurship and a third have MBA degree. Finally, we made conclusions about the further education of innovative entrepreneurs, which is based on knowledge management theories.
The article deals with fertility in the Republic of Dagestan, which markedly differs from the Russian average in fertility timing: the mean age of mother at the first childbirth in Dagestan is not rising and remains at a relatively low level. And there are significant differences between the ethnic groups in the republic that from the point of the demographic theory seems quite unexpected against the background of the ongoing modernization changes in the republic. Based on the analysis of the data from the AllRussian population census — 2010 and from the survey conducted by the authors in Dagestan, the article shows that the ethnic differences in the age of mothers at the first childbirth are remaining, even among women with high education level and younger age cohorts. Lack of neutralization of the ethnic differences by the character of childbearing in the educated groups of population is quite a rare phenomenon that needs a special explanation. Its possible social and cultural origins are the subject of discussion.
The author appealed to the poorly developed in the Russian historiography of the topic of cooperation between the USSR and North Korea in the field of education in the 1946-1948 years. Long before the establishment of the DPRK in 1948 the state began to close cooperation of these countries was initiated in 1946. On the basis of archival materials SARF, RGASPI published works in the article attempts to trace the steps of co-operation in the field of education, preparation of experts in different fields of industry, culture and science. In 1946, several hundred students from North Korea and other socialist countries have been adopted in Soviet universities. The costs incurred by the Soviet Union to train foreign students, for one only year (1946-1947 academic year) reached very large amounts. Attention is paid to the goals and objectives conducted by the Soviet state policy toward North Korea formed a new government. Soviet Union provided international assistance, often free, to a great extent was detrimental to Soviet people. The study presented aspect is important in terms of a clear understanding of the policy of the two states, the formation of the main directions in the relations between the two countries at the moment, so organically linked with the past.
Studies on socioeconomic health disparities often suffer from a lack of uniform data and methodology. Using high quality, census-linked data and sensible inequality measures, this study documents the changes in absolute and relative mortality differences by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden over the period 1971 to 2000. The age-standardised mortality rates and the population exposures for three educational categories were computed from detailed data provided by the national statistical offices. Mortality disparities by education were assessed using two range measures (rate differences and rate ratios), and two Gini-like measures (the average inter-group difference (AID) and the Gini coefficient (G)). The formulae for the decomposition of the change in the AID into (1) the contribution of change in population composition by education, and (2) the contribution of mortality change were introduced. Mortality decreases were often greater for high than for medium and low education. Both relative and absolute mortality disparities tend to increase over time. The magnitude and timing of the increases in absolute disparities vary by country. The contributions of the changes in population composition to the total AID increase were substantial in all countries, and for both sexes. The mortality contributions were substantial for males in Norway and Sweden. The study reports increases in absolute mortality disparity, and its components.