‘Academic Skills through Cases in American Studies’ is aimed at ESL college students at the Intermediate-high through Advanced levels of language proficiency. It is designed around eight country-specific (U.S.) cases that develop academic skills tested on international exams. The book covers major topics in the areas of academic reading, speaking and writing. Thus, the targeted learning outcome is two-fold: 1) to explore topical issues in American studies and 2) to master key academic skills. The content of the articles in each unit is selected according to the language needs of students majoring in economics, sociology, political science, and the like.
The book can be used both as a supplement to a course in American Studies or as a separate curriculum within an academic skills course.
Для студентов и преподавателей неязыковых вузов, а также для всех желающих приобрести навыки письменной речи на английском языке.
Why do we rather disagree than agree with each other? Why are people more likely to have different opinions than one? Can different persons have different views and still be right, all of them? All of such naive, almost childish questions concern the human being as the interlocutor of the other person and as an accomplice to the truth. It may seem that a person’s subjectivity only impedes the truth. But without the former, the latter simply does not exist. In ages passed and gone, a dispute about everything took place in the invisible presence of the Absolute (God, Spirit, Truth, History); today we have nobody else to appeal than another person (interlocutor, judge, expert, voter…). Such an appeal ad hominem, so proper to human beings, however, has always been strictly forbidden by logic and is still regarded as unacceptable discursive behaviour. Philosophy, in its search for the truth, alternatively turned its back on man, then again turned to him. In the second half of the twentieth century, logic (as the normative science of thought) began to adapt to those “too human” areas of thought where the appeal to the “man”, ad hominem, is absolutely inevitable (res publica or “human affairs”),— in the form of “informal logic”, “logic of argumentation”, etc. But under different names, the “turn to the human being” is practically coextensive of philosophy — from Socrates through Kant to neopragmatism (and so on), which does not cancel its regular rejection of “humanism” as a kind of (anti) philosophical religion of man.
Thus, the book focuses on the problem of the relationship between truth and man. The man always acted both as a subjective obstacle to the truth, and as its obligatory condition. Having chosen the ad hominem argument as a red thread, the author traces (in six separate albeit intertwined chapters) some historical and philosophical moments of this relationship — since the (constituent for the philosophy) separation from sophistry, through the complex history of the ad hominem argument and the emergence of the transcendentalist tradition to the debates on humanism in the twentieth century.
Concept discovery is a Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) research field that uses human-centered techniques such as Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Biclustering, Triclustering, Conceptual Graphs etc. for gaining insight into the underlying conceptual structure of the data. Traditional machine learning techniques are mainly focusing on structured data whereas most data available resides in unstructured, often textual, form. Compared to traditional data mining techniques, human-centered instruments actively engage the domain expert in the discovery process. This volume contains the contributions to CDUD 2011, the International Workshop on Concept Discovery in Unstructured Data (CDUD) held in Moscow. The main goal of this workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and developers of data mining instruments working on issues with analyzing unstructured data. We are proud that we could welcome 13 valuable contributions to this volume. The majority of the accepted papers described innovative research on data discovery in unstructured texts. Authors worked on issues such as transforming unstructured into structured information by amongst others extracting keywords and opinion words from texts with Natural Language Processing methods. Multiple authors who participated in the workshop used methods from the conceptual structures field including Formal Concept Analysis and Conceptual Graphs. Applications include but are not limited to text mining police reports, sociological definitions, movie reviews, etc.
The report “Civil society in modernising Russia” is a concluding analytical document of the ‘Civil Society Index in Russia – CIVICUS’ project run by CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation. The report was prepared by The Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Non-for-Profit Sector of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, which is a Russian partner of the project. The report covers methodology of the project realisation, provides the analysis of data gathered, specifies strengths and weaknesses of Russian civil society, gives recommendations to civil society organisations, government bodies, business organisations and donor associations, realisation of which would promote strengthening of civil society in Russia. The report is based on surveys, conducted as a part of fundamental research programme of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”. Cited data in the report is based, unless otherwise is stated, on results of Monitoring of the state of Russian civil society, conducted by NRU HSE in collaboration with a number of leading sociological centres in Russia.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing trends in the development of general as well as lower and secondary vocational and higher education in the Russian Federation. It also covers key education indicators for OECD countries. The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russion Federation, the Federal Treasury, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), as well as results of own methodological and analytical studies of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics. In some cases, data for 2014 are preliminary.
Supplementary material to “Economics” by Ch. St. J. Yates to develop reading, writing, listening, speaking academic skills. And to master economic terms.
Since 2008, the world economy has been facing consequences of the global financial crisis. One of them is rapid growth in public debt in most advanced economies, which resulted from an overoptimistic estimate of fiscal situation before the crisis, declining government revenue and increasing social expenditure during the crisis, costs of the banking system restructuring, countercyclical fiscal policies, etc.
For this reason, many governments are trying to determine a ‘safe’ level of fiscal deficit and public debt. However, this is not an easy task. There is no single standard of fiscal safety for all economies. Besides, a globalized economy and irregular business cycle make it difficult to find out in which phase of the cycle a given economy is at the moment, while this is essential to assess fiscal indicators.
Historical experience shows that default risk may materialize at different levels of public debt, sometimes seemingly very low. In fact, a ‘safe’ borrowing level is country-specific and depends on many factors and often unpredictable circumstances. However, given the tense situation in global markets, the ‘safe’ level of public debt is lower than it used to be a decade ago. Another argument for a cautious approach concerns a highly pro-cyclical nature of such measures as the fiscal deficit to GDP or public debt to GDP ratios.
Lessons of the latest crises also indicate importance of more accurate estimation of countries’ contingent fiscal liabilities, particularly of those relating to the stability in the financial sector. If looking into the future, a correct estimation of other contingent liabilities, particularly those related to social welfare systems (implicit debt of the public pension and health systems) are of primary importance in the context of the ageing society and population decline. These liabilities far exceed official statistics on the public debt in some counties. As a result, such statistics does not present an adequate picture of the nation's public debt and actual fiscal burden that will be imposed on the shoulders of the following generations of taxpayers.