Баланс работы и семьи: стратегии совмещения профессиональных и семейных обязанностей работающими матерями в Москве
The issue of optimal reconciling of professional and mothering responsibilities in their life style is considering. The empirical base is survey on 1667 women with preschool anв school age children that was conducted in November-December 2008 in Moscow as in one big city of Russia. The strategy of "working mother" is most popular in Moscow. That attitude determines the job conditions preferences and criteria of job satisfaction. At the same time, according to respondents’ opinion enterprises don't pay proper attention to systematic corporate policy for working parents.
The objective of this book is to develop the sustainable and lasting skills of translator's competence and to build up translation categorial strategy.
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The aim of this article is to analyze strategies of combining motherhood and employment. For this purpose the notion of work-family balance will be conceptualized. The author suggests that strategies of mixed professional and family duties is being constructed at the level of household and depends on available personal and family resources as well as individual choices of working adults. Because contemporary Russian family policy does not provide institutional supports for working parents to combine motherhood and employment. Working mothers are in search of family-work balance, because child care is the main women responsibilities. Motherhood is still a crucial part of life project for Russian women.
The purpose of the book is to give a holistic and systematic understanding of the nature, sources, mechanisms of formation and development of labor interests in terms of the personality of the employee, to show the possibilities of using this phenomenon in the field of human resource management. The book is intended for a wide range of readers, namely: for students, graduate students, doctoral students, teachers of higher educational institutions of a psychological, sociological, legal and economic profile, as well as for practitioners in the field of human capital management.
The economic development of any country is determined by the interests of the actors. And this is quite understandable, since both production, trade, and distribution, and consumption are connected not only with material objects, but also with the intellectual spiritual activity of people, with their real labor activity. The development of the economy can not be represented as an active process outside the participation of people. But a one-sided view of interest only from an economic point of view allows us to reveal only a certain set of its characteristics, without providing a complete picture of all its diverse content.
In the modern world it is necessary to consider and evaluate the interests of workers in the course of their work activity in a different way. First, the scale of their expression and reflection has significantly expanded. Secondly, the range of participants in economic activity and the range of their labor interests has become much wider. Third, labor interests, both nationally and internationally, have become much more dense and closely related. Fourth, a profound scientific technical, technological, political and cultural factors influencing the formation and development of labor interests have acquired an unprecedented scale.
Studies of labor interests are very important, since each area of economic, social, legal, pedagogical, psychological, and other sciences makes its own special contribution to the development of the theory and methodology of knowledge of the phenomenon of interest. At the same time, the need to unite the efforts of all schools to form a theory of labor interests, which would form the basis of a new scientific paradigm, seems more and more obvious. Today in science there is no consensus about the concept and nature of labor interests and the ways of their coordination. Despite a significant amount of work related to the analysis of various aspects of labor interests, a number of insufficiently studied theoretical questions remain. Among them: the historical, epistemological and ontological nature of labor interests, the factors determining them; forms and conditions for the realization of interests in modern conditions; the role and place of interests in the mechanism of labor motivation of staff; patterns of formation, functioning and development of the system of labor interests; trends of its transformation.
Of course, one should not exaggerate the possibility of a complete and rigorous description of the changing pattern of labor interests. They are sometimes little predictable and develop outside the general field of view. Deep economic processes in the national and world economy give rise to financial industrial, trade and other crises, which adversely affect the content of labor interests. Some people lose the field of employment and their labor interests are saved rather potentially. Others, on the contrary, gain confidence in the achievement of broader economic goals, and still others try to passively or actively influence the prevention and elimination of crisis phenomena and their labor interests acquire a purely situational character. Much depends on how each worker realizes his place in the real division of labor and seeks to use his potential in the sphere of production. And therefore, psychological science is designed to form and use such models and mechanisms of motivation that give labor activity the character of a powerful and sustainable factor of social development and improvement of the well-being of each employee. One of the backbone and very promising mechanisms for employers motivation is labor interest. That is, labor interest should become the dominant mechanism for influencing the work activity of people. This is one of the conclusions of the author of the book.
Another conclusion is that the purposeful influence of the external social environment serves as an important factor of positive or negative influence on the labor interests, either encouraging active civil or professional actions, or deforming interest to the level of self-serving. Thus, it is necessary to create an external working environment conducive to the formation, maintenance and development of sustainable socially beneficial labor interests. Ways how to do this are outlined in the book.
The author focuses on the feasibility of studying the systemic interaction of the labor interests of different categories of workers - owners, managers, specialists, experts. All this is complemented by an analysis of the influence of interpersonal, group, national and professional, civil interests in labor collectives. Their systemic influence is not yet studied with sufficient depth. Therefore, this monograph opens the first page of a deep study of labor interests.
The book includes three chapters, each of which consists of five sections. The first chapter examines all questions relating to the sources, the nature of labor interests, the conceptual apparatus and the research of scientists in this field. The place of interest in the mechanism of labor motivation and various theories of interests are considered. The author presents a modern classification of labor interests - an ensemble of interests. The prospects for the development of the theory of labor interests within the framework of the psychological sciences, such as social psychology, labor psychology, organizational psychology, etc., are shown.
Chapter 2 provides a psychological model of work interests. Identified sources of interest in labor, both external and internal. The influence of interest on job satisfaction, involvement and loyalty of staff, on professional self-realization of workers and the optimality of work in general is shown. A separate section is devoted to the use of the psychological model of labor interests in the system of human capital management.
Chapter 3 reflects the dynamics of labor interests. Here are the factors influencing the variability of interests — working catalysts and inhibitors, internal obligations, individual values, perfectionism, “inspiring” samples, etc. Revealed ways to stimulate labor interests, which may be practically useful in the management of staff organizations, because they include specific recommendations. Different approaches to the study of labor interests are described in detail, since almost all the tools available at this stage in the development of psychological science to measure the individual structure of workers' interests are presented. The evolution of labor interests, both age and generation, is presented.
The annexes present methods and tools for assessing the structure of employees' interests, job satisfaction, and other features of motivating and stimulating interests.
In conclusion, conclusions are made that allow to state the relevance and scope of the topic of labor interests for psychological science and other social sciences (sociology, law, pedagogy, etc.). The prospects for the study of this problem within the whole spectrum of the social and psychological sciences are shown. New special courses on labor interests are offered for persons studying in the field of social psychology, labor psychology, organizational psychology, personnel management, etc. Recommendations are made for purposeful shaping of labor interests in the practice of socio-psychological services and personnel management departments of companies specialized firms, scientific centers and in the activities of executive and municipal government bodies.
Relation between the informal employment and job satisfaction is investigated in the paper. Informal employment takes rather big place in Russian economy, what makes research of the mechanism of the informal sector of the labor market functioning very relevant. Ordered choice models with sample selection correction were estimated on the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) data. The key result of the paper is that subjective well-being is not determined by employment status itself, crucial is conditions of choice. Individuals, who came to the informal sector because of their own choice, treat their job as well as workers' with the registered employment. So, they have no incentives for seeking to formalize their status, which could mean further growth of the informal sector.
The article deals with the issues of Russian labour law compliance to the international labour standards in several crucial issues: discrimination in employment, freedom of association, wages etc.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.