Атмосфера городских пространств в последнии десятилетия все более активно изучается представителями различных областей знания. Это связано как с вниманием к человеку, его эмоциям и переживаниям, так и с необходимостью применения рассматриваемого концепта в реальной жизни: планировании городских и общественных пространств, выстраивании маркетинговой стратегии туристических дестинаций, проведении мега-событий и т.д. Несмотря на то что феномен атмосферы крайне востребован, поскольку позволяет комплексно смотреть на городское пространство с различных исследовательских позиций, тем не менее это явление до сих пор не было четко определено, концептуализировано и операционализировано. Отсутствие концептуального аппарата и релевантного языка описания исследуемого феномена ведет к невозможности эффективного измерения городского пространства и производимых в нем социальных отношений, что затрудняет работу как социальных исследователей, так и специалистов-практиков. Автор предпринимает попытку создания языка для описания феномена городской атмосферы. В основе работы лежит анализ понятия атмосферы и его оттенков, поиск и обоснование его метафоры, а также категорий, применимых для создания языка описания исследуемого явления. В результате для описания городской атмосферы предложено использовать понятия ламинарности и турбулентности, заимствованные из естественных наук. В качестве категорий описания используются наработки представителей феноменологического и неомарксистского подходов и рассматриваются такие понятия, как городские ритмы, аффекты, социальный и политический контексты города, эмоции, инфраструктурный рельеф, аутентичность и эстетизация городского пространства.
The issue of optimal reconciling of professional and mothering responsibilities in their life style is considering. The empirical base is survey on 1667 women with preschool anв school age children that was conducted in November-December 2008 in Moscow as in one big city of Russia. The strategy of "working mother" is most popular in Moscow. That attitude determines the job conditions preferences and criteria of job satisfaction. At the same time, according to respondents’ opinion enterprises don't pay proper attention to systematic corporate policy for working parents.
The article analyzes methodological aspects of the teaching of visual sociology at the sociological departments of Russian universities. It presents two different approaches towards teaching visual sociology. The course "Sociological imagination: a practical guide to visual sociology" offered by the Sociological Department of Higher School of Economics combines the sociology and photography. The course is given by two professionals. One is a sociologist, the other is a photographer. Students choose main research question and make series of photos, which they analyze both from sociological and photographical points of view. The main idea of the course "The Development of sociological imagination through participant observation and visualization" at the Department of Sociology of Moscow State University is to develop different views of social reality with the help of participant observation and visualization. The course is based on the constructionist ideas of Pierre Bourdieu. Students develop their imagination by using photo, video and audio material. Visual images are used not only for supporting the existing phenomena of social reality but also for constructing new understandings and approaches to the same reality. They are trying to find "the unknown features in the well known context". The authors share their opinions about the main problems they face while teaching the courses and explain their methodological attitudes.
Structures of social inequality and new forms of power inevitably arise inside the social space within the modern Internet despite the idea that Internet is a means of free communication based on the equality of users. The influence of traditional social inequality forms is absorbed and reduced within computer-mediated communication, so we suggest a hypothesis about emergence of radically new social resource. The paper presents the approach to study a virtual community as a social field (in terms of Bourdieu theory). The aim of this study is to measure and evaluate the contribution of different types of capital to unequal distribution of power within community. The author has developed the analytical matrix of social integration types provided by different web technologies, formulated the concept of communicative capital, operationalized different types of capital in cyberspace. Finally, the author presents the results of his empirical research showing and interpreting the distribution of different types of capital between two groups of users - moderators and ordinary users.
This article is devoted to the study of the viral altruism as a form of prosocial mass activity in social networks. It reveals the diverse nature of this phenomenon, which is driven by the distinct mechanisms of intrinsic altruistic motivation of prosocial action, extrinsic rational motivation, or by social contagion which does not necessarily presuppose an altruistic orientation of social action. Basing on this typology of the mechanisms forms of participation of Russian and Ukrainian Vkontakte users in the Ice Bucket Challenge (IBC) charity campaign are compared using information about «digital footprints». Various examples of participation are summarized in the form of an analytical typology which reflects the predominant influence of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, or of social contagion processes. The validity of the typology is confirmed by the results of cluster analysis of empirical data. In the discussion of the results, it is emphasized that the «formal» participation of users in the cascade of social contagion could be more correctly defined as an example of mass behavior in the digital environment, rather than the manifestation of viral altruism per se. In addition, this article demonstrates that in the process of analysis of charitable campaign participants’ activities it is necessary to investigate the real directedness of users actions, as well as the socio-political context that can influence on it, rather than only rely on the interpretation, based on the formal rules of the campaign. It is shown that carrying out such an in-depth analysis helps to distinguish users with extrinsic and intrinsic motivation more adequately.
Existing studies show that parental self-efficacy is an important factor of positive parental practices and child development. In this paper we focus on factors associated with level of maternal self-efficacy. Features of modern motherhood (intensive motherhood, ‘parental determinism’, anxiety and high risk-consciousness) suggest that one of these factors is disagreement over child-rearing rules or parenting principles between a mother and her relatives. Our main research question is wheather disagreement affects parental self-efficacy beliefs of mothers. The study is based on an online survey of 670 mothers of pre-school children and 50 semi-structured interviews with mothers. According to the survey disagreements over child-rearing rules are frequent – about 20% of mothers say that family and friends have criticized them for the way they care for a child; about 30% - that it is difficult to find an agreement with relatives about principles and rules of parenting, 25% - that they have to limit the time a child spends with family, because of these disagreements. The proportion of mothers who noticed that they have disagreements with relatives over child-rearing rules is lower among working mothers and higher among mothers who support some of the popular child-rearing theories. Our analysis also shows that disagreements have a negative impact on parental self-efficacy.
The article argues that sociological analysis of justice and fairness perception phenomena requires a closer examination of their purported relationships with everyday descriptive knowledge available to social actors. The results of an experiment studying relationships between individual judgments on fair division of putative centralized transfer payments addressed to different groups of the general population and subjects ordinary pre-existing knowledge of relevant social and economic facts are presented and analyzed. The experimental results obtained indicated that in most cases no significant correlations between individual judgments on just distribution of money transfers aimed at 1) equalizing average salaries for those working in different economic sectors and 2) Internet-access levels for different age cohorts, on the one hand, and relevant everyday predictions for salaries and Internet-access distributions, on the other hand, were observed. The weak-to-moderate correlations between individuals everyday cognitions and their justice-related judgments were revealed only in few cases for particular groups of hypothesized money transfers beneficiaries and could have a direction contrary to theoretically expected one. The results obtained give some indirect support to a cognitivist theory of moral feelings (R. Boudon) and cast doubts on popular broad interpretations of the Thomas theorem.
The article examines the status system of the local academic community of St. Petersburg sociologists. The list of most cited authors was obtained from citation analysis of selected Russian sociological journals. The results suggest that the status system is divided in isolated segments with few citation exchanges between different segments. Each part of the sociological community produces its own list of influentials. With a few exceptions there are no authors central for the whole community. Even the embeddedness of various segments in the same local space does not stimulate circulation of attention between different parts of the community.
The paper concerns the problem of business partner selection in supply chains in the contemporary Russian market. Using the structural approach in the new economic sociology, I examine the role of social ties in the search for business partners and entering into contracts with them. Based on standardized interviews of 500 retailers and suppliers carried out in 2007 and 2010, I demonstrate the social embeddedness of business partner selection. When entering into an agreement, market actors focus not only on profitability but also on successful experience of cooperation with a business partner, its popularity and reliability, as well as the presence of acquaintances among its employees. The majority of market actors combine arm’s length ties and embedded ties when setting up agreements with business partners. But the criteria of business partners selection are not universal: some of them are more relevant for retailers, whereas others are more suitable for suppliers
In the article we analyze the results of the focus groups as a part of the research of factors of the mutual adaptation of migrants and host population. Moral foundations of the perception of migration and migrants by the host population of Moscow are in the focus of interest. A theoretical framework for the interpretation of the obtained results is defined by the Theory of moral foundations and the Theory of moral motives. Respondents demonstrated active emotional rejection of migration in Moscow, pronouncing all the popular "Caucasian" themes. The dominance in the estimates of "moral" emotions allows us to refer to the analysis of the moral components in the host population's representations of migration and migrants. The moral foundation "in-group loyalty" is actualized with the perceived threat from migrants. Representatives of the host population consider mainly cultural symbols and practices, translated in the status of the sacred, as markers of belonging to the in-group. The use of the concept of "home" reinforces the idea of the boundaries between "Insiders" - "indigenous" and "Outsiders" - "newcomers", and becomes the basis of a hierarchical order: inequality between "host" and "guest" is clearly understood and spoken by participants in the focus groups. The results of the analysis allow to conclude that the moral foundations of «Loyalty/ betrayal», «Authority/subversion» and «Sanctity/degradation» are supported by avoidance motivation and become the basis of the claims of morality of the social order based on homogenization group composition and impermeability of group boundaries. Thus, morality focused on the safety of the group becomes the basis of discriminatory discourse and appropriate practices and contributes to the expansion of social support of stricter immigration policy.
The article describes theoretical and practical contradictions of state identity, national identity and civic identity concepts. The conclusion on the preference of civic-state identity concept in describing the processes of individuals identifying with the social whole in the individualized society is developed. Contemporary challenges on controllability of postmodern society are discussed.
In his seminal work «Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft», Ferdinand Tönnies back in the late nineteenth century already predicted that the end of the gesellschaft era will be marked by the appearance of new gemeinschafts, which may give birth to a new culture. Nowadays, we may be witnessing the emergence of such gemeinschafts in the form of self-isolated local communities (ecovillages, intentional and religious communities, kin’s domain settlements, etc.). The situation in Russia is unique and unforeseen by Tönnies — new local gemeinschafts coexist in the same country and even in the same ethno-religious environment with the remaining old ones — territorially isolated local communities (remote hard-to-reach villages). Based on the identified features of a gemeinschaft, the article compares territorially isolated and self-isolated local communities (on the example of the so-called kin’s domain settlements — its most widespread variety in Russia) with an ideal gemeinschaft. The author concludes that territorially isolated communities are closer to an ideal gemeinschaft. This can be partly explained by the fact that kin’s domain settlements are still at the initial stage of their development. They grew out of the gesellschaft and bear some of its traits. And even now, gemeinschaft features in kin’s domain settlements are prevailing over the gesellschaft ones as evolution towards an ideal gemeinschaft continues. Nevertheless, new gemeinschafts will remain qualitatively different social ties as compared to the old ones. The data were collected in remote villages and kin’s domain settlements using such methods as in-depth interviews and observations with elements of participant observation.
This paper examines patterns of support for conservative attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in nine societies of the former Soviet Union. We use the World Values Survey data from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan collected in 2011–2013 to discuss the reasons of lifestyle intolerance. Using latent class and other multivariate analyzes, we find that the degree of religiosity is a more important predictor of conservative values than is the Islamic cultural legacy. For instance, people in the Christian and very religious countries of Armenia and Georgia are far more likely to condemn sex before marriage or abortion than are Muslims in more secular Kazakhstan. Interestingly, the watershed between the heterogeneous and uniform societies does not coincide with the economic divide as there are rich and poor countries in the sample. Instead, the watershed is best described by the country's degree of religiosity, which may well be an effect of economic development awhile ago rather than at the present time. Latent class analysis suggests that populations are more heterogeneous with regard to attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. In Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, there is more unanimity in reprobation of abortion, divorce, and premarital sex.