Про равенство и неравенство
The article deals with issues of social stratification and mobility. The author reviews various forms of equality and inequality and analyzes their existence in societies of various types. The work is based on the findings of polls conducted over a period of several decades. The analysis of the findings attests both to the existence of actual inequality in Soviet society and to the reflection of this fact in mass consciousness. The article examines the specific features of mobility, Soviet style. The paths of careers and the circumstances of their realization varied in different periods of Soviet history, yet rigid bureaucratic control over vertical mobility, which eventually led to stagnation— actual cessation of the turnover of high-status groups—and subsequent collapse of the system, remained unchanged.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.