Античные тексты in statu quo: истоки жанра педагогической антологии как формы исторической памяти
The article considers the origins of anthological principle in the ancient notions of memory. Ancient authors often took on the role of compilers-commentators, maneuvering between the desire to make other people's texts accessible and the desire to manipulate them within a particular culture. If we define anthology as a form of historical memory, then we must admit that it arises in the space between reverence and unceremo-niousness of the relation to texts. This space took shape in the ancient past and continues to exist in the modern present, where there are also sanctioned and unauthorized memories and memory models that are represented with pedagogical intent.
Finding, selecting, juxtaposing primary sources and constructing their hierarchy are difficult tasks even for professional researchers, not to mention those who engage in this pursuit as part of their educational work. Of major assistance for students and for the general audience with an interest in the subject are anthologies and source books. However, their compilers are frequently forced to limit themselves and their readers to “strong texts” (Banta 1993) from well-known “great books.” Modern technology allows us to remove these limitations and other restrictions. It allows students to compile personal anthologies of primary sources based on full-text online databases (Loebolus, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, The Perseus Digital Library, and many others). At the beginning of my “History of Ancient Education” course, I introduce students to my anthology of the pedagogical heritage of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome book. By the end of the course, students become authors of their own personal electronic anthologies on the history of ancient education. Creating similar personal anthologies can be applied to different areas, time periods, and corpora of texts as long as there are physical and digital anthologies available.
The heritage of the ancient Roman politician, orator and thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC), is considered as a set of texts that over centuries have been included in the curricula for humanities students, significantly changing the narrative tradition and detecting a way of understanding what is related to humanities. The key questions for the authors is the following: how and for what purposes was Cicero’s heritage presented to humanities students in educational texts in the first two decades of the 20th and 21st centuries? At the beginning of last century, scholars’ attention to Cicero was largely due to Augustus Samuel Wilkins (1843–1905), Paul Monroe (1869–1947) and his disciple Ellwood Cubberley (1868-1941). Many textbooks compiled by P. Monroe, A.S. Wilkins and E. Cubberley were published one after another. Thanks to the educational books of P. Monroe, A.S. Wilkins and E. Cubberley, different approaches to presenting Cicero's works for educational purposes were developed. It is these approaches that were reflected in educational books for humanists a century later. In Russian textbooks, sourcebooks, and anthologies on history of pedagogy, Cicero was mostly a figure of omission not only in the first decades, but throughout the entire 20th century. At the beginning of the 21st century, many learning books for humanities students appeared. Their authors and compilers consider Cicero as an author who left a conceptual description of pedagogical reality (a detailed description of educational process) and chose a narrative description (description of what happened through the eyes of those who take part in it). We have to regret that the Russian domestic tradition of including Cicero's heritage in the content of humanitarian education has hardly undergone any changes over a century: fragments of his works continue to be presented on a small scale, are practically not grouped according to key issues, and rarely accompanied by pedagogical commentaries. The question of why some texts were selected while others were not, can be asked to every author and compiler who included Cicero's texts in their books for humanities students. The search for answers to this “eternal question” can be associated both with the flexibility of the humanitarian curriculum, and with the personal preferences of the authors and compilers of learning books.
The article deals with the issues related to the preservation of cultural and historical heritage of the Russian period in the history of Alaska and its commemoration in various organizations there. Now, the issue of preserving historical memory is relevant and in high demand, having various forms of manifestation, including the preservation of material and nonmaterial heritage of Russian America.
A recent rediscovery of Eugene Jolas, spurred on by posthumous publications, notably of his autobiography, and the opening of his archives, has gradually made it clear that Jolas was something more than editor of the legendary transition and first publisher of Finnegans Wake. The research presented here restores his significance as one of a restless mind presciently tuned to the potentialities of modernism in the twentieth and sometimes twenty-first centuries. It focuses on Jolas’ unpublished anthology of multilingual poets that counted Samuel Beckett, Yvan and Claire Goll, and Hans Arp among its contributors. Seemingly relegated to the what-ifs of modernism, Jolas’ anthology represents a tangible milestone: evidence of an emerging theorization of multilingualism among high modernists in the late 1940s, and a missing link in the current scholarly narrative of 20th century multilingual writing. This work reinstates the significance of this hitherto unknown anthology for global modernism, contributes to the study of the “multilingual turn” identified in modernism by recent scholarship and helps reintroduce multilingual modernism into the larger history of modern multilingual reflexivity.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.