This article represents a scientific biography of the outstanding Russian scholar – economist, sociologist and historian Andrei Poletayev (1952–2010). His studies created a foundation and led to new developments in a series of social disciplines. The article describes Andrei Poletaev’s way into historical discipline, the transition of his research interests from the analysis of economic processes to economic history, and then to the contemporary theory of history, where his research was focused on the evolution of images of the past in various epochs, studies of mass representations about the past and history of social science. In this article we analyze the central theoretical ideas of his works on history written in coauthorship with Irina Savelieva.
Shortly after 1125, William of Conches, young grammarian at the School of Chartres, published his first treatise, the Philosophia. Thanks to some of its new ideas and style, it became popular and circulated largely in intellectual millieu. Around 1140, one copy reached the theologian William of Saint Thierry, close friend and biographer of saint Bernard of Clairevaux. This faultfinding reader of all novelties touching the ground of faith was already intervening in the second trial on Peter Abaelard, which eventually led to his excommunication. He proposed the same measure against the “heretic” from Conches, but did not succeed. However, his critical letter on William of Conches adressed to the leader of Citeaux remains a startling document of the intellectual atmosphere and the style of discussion, which dominated France in that years. The article proposes a comparative analysis of this letter and of the Conches’ Philosophia. In the appendix, the first full translation of the letter and of the chapters on the elements from the Philosophia, into Russian are published.
The article examines the topos of an "exile poet", which is a subvariant of the topos "poet-sufferer". It gained special popularity in the era of Romanticism, when it became firmly part of the poetic language and an element of self-description for poetry. But his roots are long-standing. Already Dante gave this topos motifs of moral fortitude, love of the homeland in spite of and over her unjust court, acceptance of her fate. Petrarch added the motive of absolute self-sufficiency as the main condition for poetic self-realization. Tasso formed topos definitively, giving it the properties and status of normativeness: the poet by his choice is doomed to an unresolvable conflict with social reality.
The author analyses the historical narrative, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, written by Geoffrey Keating (1580–1644), as reflection on British composite project in Ireland. The article explores the image of authority which was constructed not only on the basis of copied or retold material from the medieval Irish sources, but also on the basis of perceptions of the period Keating lived in. Therefore, Keating's narrative comprised concepts of authority, which the author acquired from preceding Irish tradition and which he left intact, and anachronisms, the elements of the reality surrounding the Irish history-writer, which were projected on the Irish past.
Theater discussion 1918-1920 is regarded as an independent phenomenon. The author analyzes A. Lunacharsky’s and P. Kerzhentsev’s standpoints. Moreover, the author shows the influence of the theatrical debate on the formation of the public administrations in Soviet Russia.
The acrticle is concerned with the vision of Western Church by rusian bookmen of the 11–12th centuries as it can be studied based on the “anti-latin” sermons, issued by rusian orthodox clergy of the time. These sermons are often regarded as badly composed and epigonic. Systematic comparison of such texts with their most probable prototyes demonstrares however that rusian bookmen were competent enough to extend available information on the West leaning on their own observations and estimations. Our knowledge on political and cultural relations between Rus’ and western Europe extends remarkably when we establish by whom and when the noted amplifications were made.
The article deals with the ways such 17th century authors as Isaac La Peyrère or Giambattista Vico envisaged the history of Jewish civilization. Focusing primarily on La Peyrère's “preadamite” writings and the Vichian treatise On the consistency of philology (second part of De constantia jurisprudentis), we set ourselves the goal to point out the line of historical development located between two major tracks of the Vichian history of nations – that of the gentiles and that of the Jews. Our study made it possible to consider the Vico's science as resulting of an interaction of various disciplinary palimpsests and discursive splinters, cut short and not written to the end – Protestant exegesis or historiosophy of the prisca sapientia among them.
This article explores the idea of the middle class on the memories of Francois Guizot. The idea is presented as a result of research and political activities of French thinker. Much attention is paid to the historical and intellectual context, as well as to the genetic connection of this idea with the preceding and subsequent traditions of its development.
The article attempts to categorize the works by Vladimir I. Kolosov (1854-1919), a local historian from Tver', as historiographical sources. The classification is based on their types, in accordanse with the approaches formulated by the school of the source study established by Olga M. Medushevskaya. The author of the article draws a preliminary conclusion that socialy-oriented works prevail omong the writings of Vladimir I. Kolosov.
The article is focused on the history of imperial medicine as a new academic field. It looks at its main concerns and major developments, tracing historians’ changing ideas regarding the aims, content and consequences of European medical initiatives in the colonies.
This paper is dedicated to the modern approaches to the intellectual history of fascism in Italy. The research outlines the evolution of the fascist studies since the 1960-s, reviews the critical points of modern discussions about fascism: its fundamental grounds, its mythological basis, fascism as a political religion, fascism as a doctrine. The paper presents the positions of the key modern researchers of fascism including Emilio Gentile, Roger Eatwell, Anthony James Gregor, Roger Griffin, Stanley Payne.