This article represents a scientific biography of the outstanding Russian scholar – economist, sociologist and historian Andrei Poletayev (1952–2010). His studies created a foundation and led to new developments in a series of social disciplines. The article describes Andrei Poletaev’s way into historical discipline, the transition of his research interests from the analysis of economic processes to economic history, and then to the contemporary theory of history, where his research was focused on the evolution of images of the past in various epochs, studies of mass representations about the past and history of social science. In this article we analyze the central theoretical ideas of his works on history written in coauthorship with Irina Savelieva.
The article analyses an episode in the scientific life of the Department of General History, Kazan State University, i.e. the publication of a manual “Periodization of the World History” (1984), which was immediately criticized for “ideological faults”. The analysis shows that a great part of the book was formed by the annotations of Marxist classics; however, along with this, its authors undertook an interesting attempt to improve some of the Marxist categories, to express their own theoretical views, to integrate into the official methodology new research approaches that manifested themselves both inside and outside the Soviet science.
Basing on the materials of Russian scientific, literary, philosophical, journalist and poetic texts, the article looks at the ways electricity was described scientifically and how electrical metaphors were used in non-scientific texts from mid-eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century. Natural science was not free from romanticized and theological ideas, while literature and journalist texts put scientific concepts to artistic imagination. The ideas about electricity were projected onto various spheres of life, and electricity itself became a trope to describe inexplicable phenomena, such as national feeling or the feeling of love.
The authors analyze the medical knowledge and interactions of physicians and patients during the first third of the XIX century. The challenge was the documented conflict that the medical council in Vilno city dealt with in 1827. Thanks to this, the patient’s complaint about a private family doctor who could not save two his kids from scarlet fever, as well as the doctor’s justification, and his actions by medical officials ended up in the state archive. Unique testimonies made it possible to reconstruct the research knowledge of medical scientists and patients' medical representations, the level of confidence in scientific medicine, and the conditions of private medical practice in Vilno province.
The paper is focused on analysis of dynamics of Polish national memory in the context of the Austro-Hungarian Empire of the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. The research is based on the concept of “frameworks of memory” introduced by Maurice Halbwachs. The idea is that Polish national memory had been developing in the dialogue between the historical Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth’s traditional frames of memory and the ‘Habsburg frames of memory’ of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. As we suggest, at that time many intellectuals tried to re-interpret Polish history in order to find common Polish-Habsburg “sites of memory”.
Shortly after 1125, William of Conches, young grammarian at the School of Chartres, published his first treatise, the Philosophia. Thanks to some of its new ideas and style, it became popular and circulated largely in intellectual millieu. Around 1140, one copy reached the theologian William of Saint Thierry, close friend and biographer of saint Bernard of Clairevaux. This faultfinding reader of all novelties touching the ground of faith was already intervening in the second trial on Peter Abaelard, which eventually led to his excommunication. He proposed the same measure against the “heretic” from Conches, but did not succeed. However, his critical letter on William of Conches adressed to the leader of Citeaux remains a startling document of the intellectual atmosphere and the style of discussion, which dominated France in that years. The article proposes a comparative analysis of this letter and of the Conches’ Philosophia. In the appendix, the first full translation of the letter and of the chapters on the elements from the Philosophia, into Russian are published.
The article examines the topos of an "exile poet", which is a subvariant of the topos "poet-sufferer". It gained special popularity in the era of Romanticism, when it became firmly part of the poetic language and an element of self-description for poetry. But his roots are long-standing. Already Dante gave this topos motifs of moral fortitude, love of the homeland in spite of and over her unjust court, acceptance of her fate. Petrarch added the motive of absolute self-sufficiency as the main condition for poetic self-realization. Tasso formed topos definitively, giving it the properties and status of normativeness: the poet by his choice is doomed to an unresolvable conflict with social reality.
The article examines the activity of the Tver historian V. I. Kolosov on the formation of the intellectual space of Tver. The study is based on the" individualizing " method of A. S. Lappo-Danilevsky. The author of the article believes that the study of the professional, scientific, and social activities of the historian is necessary for understanding the creativity of the researcher.
The author analyses the historical narrative, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, written by Geoffrey Keating (1580–1644), as reflection on British composite project in Ireland. The article explores the image of authority which was constructed not only on the basis of copied or retold material from the medieval Irish sources, but also on the basis of perceptions of the period Keating lived in. Therefore, Keating's narrative comprised concepts of authority, which the author acquired from preceding Irish tradition and which he left intact, and anachronisms, the elements of the reality surrounding the Irish history-writer, which were projected on the Irish past.
Theater discussion 1918-1920 is regarded as an independent phenomenon. The author analyzes A. Lunacharsky’s and P. Kerzhentsev’s standpoints. Moreover, the author shows the influence of the theatrical debate on the formation of the public administrations in Soviet Russia.
In the history of dramaturgy, the 19th c. was a time when drama emerged as a “middle” genre, which eliminated a direct opposition between tragedy and comedy and synthesized a number of their characteristics in a new genre. In theatre repertoires, this genre transformation revealed itself in the prevalence of plots that exploited the theme of adultery, which in the classical period belonged to the high, tragic register. Pirandello’s works belong to repertoire drama and retain all its external, formula characteristics. This formula is destroyed either from within, by a paradoxical plot twist that demonstrated relativity of social relations and accepted morals, or, in the trilogy “theatre in theatre”, from without by revealing the conventions of theatre and finding tragic dimensions in a trivial theme.
The acrticle is concerned with the vision of Western Church by rusian bookmen of the 11–12th centuries as it can be studied based on the “anti-latin” sermons, issued by rusian orthodox clergy of the time. These sermons are often regarded as badly composed and epigonic. Systematic comparison of such texts with their most probable prototyes demonstrares however that rusian bookmen were competent enough to extend available information on the West leaning on their own observations and estimations. Our knowledge on political and cultural relations between Rus’ and western Europe extends remarkably when we establish by whom and when the noted amplifications were made.
The article deals with the ways such 17th century authors as Isaac La Peyrère or Giambattista Vico envisaged the history of Jewish civilization. Focusing primarily on La Peyrère's “preadamite” writings and the Vichian treatise On the consistency of philology (second part of De constantia jurisprudentis), we set ourselves the goal to point out the line of historical development located between two major tracks of the Vichian history of nations – that of the gentiles and that of the Jews. Our study made it possible to consider the Vico's science as resulting of an interaction of various disciplinary palimpsests and discursive splinters, cut short and not written to the end – Protestant exegesis or historiosophy of the prisca sapientia among them.