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Феномен «сопротивления»: от спонтанного проявления к комплексным ответам.

The article explores concerns how the phenomenon of resistance had developed since the Middle Ages until contemporary times. Author analyses different conceptual frameworks within which the resistance was paid the prime attention: starting from Neo-Marxism and the works of early anthropologists of mid 20-th century on liminality through the concept of moral economy developed by James Scott to the concept of resistance within autonomous community as the basis for developing the complex responses towards state regulatory policy. Resistance, initially perceived as an individual act, had gradually been considered as collective action problem (CAP) that enables autonomous community members to successfully counteract the introduction of deterrence state policy. While resistance remains at the core of community policy, there is a difference among three types of autonomous communities in that how the resistance works in practice. The first type of autonomy reflects the historical developments in the countries of Western Europe and the USA, where resistance takes on a symbolic meaning. Second and third types of autonomy are made by the anomie occurred throughout the post soviet space soon after the USSR collapsed in the 1990s. Here the autonomization of communities is seen as a social reaction towards anomie when a new set of informal institutions turned out to be effective and resilient to exogenous regulatory, political and economic shocks. These communities consist of important social entities that bring their own youth socialization, combining the soft and hard forms of informal economy as the main livelihood strategies, thus, challenging the state social and economic hegemony.