Почему женщины уходят из STEM: роль стереотипов
After acquiring STEM education women are less likely to go on working in that sphere, occupy leadership positions, and get a PhD compared to men with the same level of education. In this study, we considered a stereotypical view “Work in STEM is not for womenˮ. 18 interviews were conducted with women who graduated in STEM working and not working in the sphere. According to the results, stereotypes regarding women’s place in STEM connected professional roles gradually intensified. While at the beginning all of the informants entered STEM based on the support in the secondary school, later on about 2/3 of them gradually abandoned their careers in STEM.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper studies the sources of gender segregation on the within-firm level and its effect on gender wage gap. In compare to numerous of papers devoted to gender segregation, this research is based on unique personnel data from one of Russian industrial firm for the period from 2002 to 2006. It's shown that generation and fastening of segregated employment structures can be explained, firstly, by initial job assignments and, secondly, by gender differences in promotion paths for male and female workers. Estimations of the gender wage gap afford to conclude that it is largely driven by gender segregation between job positions and hierarchical levels rather than by worker's characteristics.
Nature of the civil service determines labor relations in public authorities. However, the external environment has a significant impact on human resource management in public authorities, as well raising questions that were not previously problematized. Today in Russian public authorities more than 70% of the employees are women, but most of them face difficulties in career progression. The article deals with the specifics of gender segregation in the state civil service of modern Russia. The author aims to identify peculiarities of the status of women holding on civil service positions, as well as identify the causes of gender discrimination. An empirical study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with female civil servants revealed that both vertical gender segregation ("glass ceiling") and horizontal segregation (“glass walls”) are represented in Russian public authorities. An effort was made to identify the reasons of it. According to the research all that’s happening caused not only by normative consolidation of discriminatory measures against women on civil service, but also by "double employment" of women (ie the need to combine professional activities with unpaid domestic work) and self-discrimination of women
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.