The article discusses the importance of the implementation of educational programs for pre-school children to study the basics of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM-knowledge), as the scientific basis of development in today’s world of technological transition. Overview of the current situation in preschool education shows that STEM-knowledge gives preschoolers great potential for further development in primary and secondary schools. Studies also show that boys are more likely to acquire a better knowledge of mathematics and engineering sciences, which — to a certain extent — is determined by the teachers and pupils gender stereotypes concerning pre-school education. The article deals with the subject of STEM-knowledge for preschool children and the gender dimensions of its successful teaching. The two important parts of education policy should be implemented: development of pre-service activities or teacher training on gender analysis in STEM-programs and wider spreading of STEM-knowledge in the municipal kindergartens. Knowledge of gender differences should not lead to the development of gender dichotomy in education; on the contrary, it should lead to equal access of children to knowledge by developing motivation and positive attitudes of boys and girls to STEM-knowledge. The high importance of STEM-education is based on the fact that new information technologies and scientific approach encompass any professional activity and even everyday life of modern man.
This paper deals with the problem of informal labor relations in modern Russian companies in its gender aspect. The factors affecting on the formation and spreading of such relations are analyzing on the basis of conducted research. The conclusion is that women are more cautious in matters of entry into informal interactions then men, but they are more serious in informal obligations. The main motives for their behavior is feeling a lack of formal lows and rules protection and often such characteristics of feminine nature as softness and trustfulness.
The main concepts of economic psychology of ХХ—XI century are presented in this paper. Social-psychological aspects of study of consumer behavior in foreign and Russian psychological studies are intimately examined. The results of study of consumer behavior of women in the context of «conspicuous consumption» are presented. According to the results of the research, women concentrate on the presentation of their social status rather than sexual attractiveness while choosing clothes.
The study, presented in the article is a part of the research project "Regional identity in terms of socio-economic changes (on the example of Nizhny Novgorod Region, 2002 - 2014 years)". It reveals gender aspects of participants’ subjective opinions towards problems of urban development and characterizes social and psychological potential of the studied area. The study involved "provincial" cities residents – citizens of regional centers and small towns of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The first stage was based on a sample of 516 people (year 2002, 49% women, 51% men), 2002), the second stage - on a sample 366 people (year 2014, 63% women, 37% man). Participants formulated their own vision of the majority opinion on the prospects of the city, expressed their individual views on urban development programs, stated areas where they were willing to show personal participation, which allowed to determine the changes in the indices of ego-activity, altruism and solidarity of citizens in past 12 years. Based on the results of the study it states that, presenting the position of the majority, men and women articulate gender stereotyped attitudes about city development. But formulating individual urban development priorities citizens are focused on egalitarian non-stereotypical choices. An analysis of attitudes towards the activity in the field of urban development shows that women are focused on humanitarian priorities, and they believe that society is becoming more focused on "male values". Over the 12 years studied women, while maintaining the overall activity, have become more independent, without solidarity and are not ready for altruistic behavior. Men - residents of provincial towns - stably include safety into public priorities and adopt conservative positions in the area of "male activity" and tend to share the practice of "failed masculinity". For 12 years, men have become more non-solidary and non-altruistic. We can conclude that the ecological dominance in the values and priorities of urban development, among both men and women - is what unites their mental concepts and real action in value-semantic space.
In this paper the results of empirical investigation of gender aspects of schoolchildren’s and students conspicuous consumption. According to the results of the research all students and schoolchildren are subject to conspicuous consumption, but it has different content. The results of the research allow asserting that conspicuous consumption is integrated more deeply in to the gender socialization of women.
The aim of the article is to outline theoretical directions of maternity analysis on the base of reflexive modernization, discourse, biopower, management and class, and to offer the aspects of their use when studying maternity in Russia. The questions discussed are about how maternity is produced discursively, what the base for modern Western and Russian normative construct of maternity is, being broadcast in Mass Media. Sociological approaches towards maternity class aspects analysis connected with the idea that knowledge and the ways of its consumption and use are distributed unequally in the social space, and with the fact that symbolic practices (including maternity) representations of different classes have different moral evaluations. In the article the potential of analytical approaches usage for maternity study in Russia is discussed.
The article presents the results of the research aimed at the study of the practices of women’s blogging as a form of entrepreneurial activity. The main method of the research is qualitative (interpretative) content analysis. The object of the analysis is the content of women's blogs on the side of using it to generate income. 6 Internet platforms on which the activities on blogging are most actively carried out were analyzed: VKontakte, Odnoklassniki, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube. In the results of the study, each platform is characterized from the side of the features of blogging. Viewing 50 blogs from each social network, six main topics of women's blogs were identified: beauty, sports and a healthy lifestyle, love and relationships, success and harmony in life, cooking, creativity and needlework, beauty-blogs are conducted as the most popular . The study identified 2 main opportunities for earning in Internet blogging: 1) selling own products by advertising them on own channel (used by a small number of bloggers producing their own product); 2) promotion and sale of customer goods – it is more popular. Possible options for cooperation with partners were determined: participation in partner programs, direct cooperation with the advertiser, promotion of other channels, participation in partner advertising. During the analysis of the amount of possible income, it was noted that it had a direct connection with the number of subscribers on the channel, which determines the main risk of this business - loss of interest of the audience. In conclusion, it is stated that women's blogging is actively popularized, because it combines the possibilities of earning equivalent to earnings in «traditional business», the absence of a rigid working schedule and the opportunity to engage in «favorite» business, and despite the need to regulate activity from a legal side, this business has all chances for further successful development.
It is no secret that mass media has an extremely powerful impact on the implementation of family policy. And it is often noted that images of women play a considerable role in the implementation of family policy objectives through the media. However, most researchers consider the image of women and mothers in the context of its influence on the communicative messages recipient in the media and do not consider how the media themselves change their information product under the external influence of the state family policy. This article presents the results of the thematic content analysis of 723 media publications devoted to issues related to the family, published between 2000 and 2015 in six Russian newspapers, divided into two groups: state-owned and private, representing different political orientation. The mathematical processing of the data gathered by the content analysis was performed using Fisher’s angular transformation (to evaluate differences in proportion of each of the topics in the general thematic structure of state and private media publications for the two periods of 2000—2006 and 2007—2015) and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient to explore the relations between topics in the media publications about the family. Both state and private Russian media after 2006 convey normative family model, designed to solve the demographic problem and increase fertility. Questions of biopolitics and adoption, having many children began to take a larger share in the publication thematic structure of media of both types. Woman as the main object of pro-natalist family policy is presented in the media in relation to three aspects: the inner world of family, in the interaction with the community and as part of the state and public perceptions of the family. According to the author this discussion of the economic aspects of the family’s existence has no significant weight and does not support political discourse about the financial problems as the main reason of women failure to have children.