Радио классической музыки и его аудитория в России: опыт эмпирических исследований 2013-2015 гг.
The article analyzes the place of classical music in the radio broadcasting system in modern Russia. The author presents some facts of the history of the national radio broadcasting associated with classical music. It is shown that classical music on the radio occupied an important place in the Soviet Union from the start broadcasting in the 1920s. After the collapse of the USSR during last 25 years, the total volume of classical music on the radio, expressed in hours increased. In modern Russia, four Russian radio stations, each with coverage 10% of the population and above, where there is classical music (radio station«Orpheus», «Radio Russia. Kultura», «Radio Russia», «Detskoye Radio»), the aggregate amount of classical music and gear about it is, estimated, up to 29 hours a day. On the other hand, in percentage terms there was a decrease volume of classical music in comparison with the 1980s to 18-20% in four programs of All-Union Radio to 2-2.5% in the fifty largest radio stations in modern Russian Federation. The reason - the almost twenty-fold growth in the number of radio stations, observed since the beginning of the 1990s, in which there is no place to classical music. Studies conducted in Moscow in 2013-2015, revealed that the value of the audience of classical music radio stations (in the example of radio «Orpheus» and «Radio Russia. Kultura») is relatively small. The number of people applying for each station at least once a day (Daily Reach), is just over 1%, during the week (Weekly Reach) - 3-4% in the last month (Monthly Reach) - about 4-6%. Over the past 10 years there has been growth of the audience of radio «Orpheus» in Moscow, which indicates an increase of Muscovites need to listen to classical music on the radio. The structure of both radios audience distinguished by a high percentage of listeners with higher education, the prevalence of people aged 40 years older, a high percentage of qualified specialists and managers. The audience of the radio «Orpheus» is composed mostly by listeners that have at least any level of music education.