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НАУКА И ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ В СТРАНАХ ВОСТОКА И ЗАПАДА (ФИНАНСОВО- ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ РЕСУРСЫ)

Фридман Л. А., Имамкулиева Э. Э.

The article deals with the comparison between groups of countries based on two indicators: GDP per capita
and a percentage of expenditures on research and development (R&D) in GDP. The data are given on 103 states
and territories where statistical indicators were available. Despite the fact that in general, statistical data confirm
an overall upward drift in expenditures on R&D as GDP per capita grows, it is shown that there are multiple cases
stepping out of this trend. Two most populated countries of the world are among them: China and India, including
40–50% of the world population. Special focus of the article is on China whose example shows that the strategy of
an accelerated R&D development in conditions of high economic growth rates within 10–15 years, may start even
in a group of “lower-middle income” countries, and implementation of this strategy in R&D can provide a real
breakthrough with achievement of indicators typical not for developing countries but for developed economies (for
instance, average indicators for the Euro-zone states). The researchers make an attempt to determine an optimum
level of R&D appropriations by arithmetic calculations based on direct comparisons of such indicators as GDP per
capita and the share of expenditures on R&D. However, the examples of China, India, South Korea, also Russia
and, on the other side, a specified group euphemistically termed as “Oil and Gas Countries” highlight the fact that
such comparisons could be useful, meaningful, cognitive, though not regulatory or, much less, directorial.