ТОСы: от первой волны до нового интереса
For more than 30 years, Russia has been developing “territorial public self-government” – the
process of self-organization of citizens at the local level (TOS in Russian). The article considers the
development of TOS as a tool for involvement and participation of citizens in local self-government
(LSG). In Russia at the beginning of 2020, there were more than 33 thousand TOS, half of them in
rural areas. It is a slow transformation of TOS activities (from the distribution of humanitarian aid in the
1990s) before participating in National projects after 2018), as well as changing attitudes towards TOS
(from lack of recognition and support – to cooperation and allocation of serious funds, up to presidential
grants). On the basis of long-term included observation, positive social practices that are implemented in
rural settlements, features of the daily activities of rural TOS, features of rural life, including the nature
of development and individual consumption of municipal resources, environmental problems and the
seizure of agricultural land and pastures are described. Rural TOS are forced to do more practical things,
their projects are more labor-intensive, and the contribution of the residents themselves is more tangible
and visible (engineering infrastructure, roads and sidewalks, gasification, electricity and street lighting,
garbage collection, and other cultural and leisure projects): a different scale than in the city, but much
greater diversity, involvement and initiative of the residents themselves. The positive experience of the
TOS of Kameshkovsky rural settlement of the Vladimir region and Novopavlovsky rural settlement of
the Krasnodar territory is considered. Numerous social practices are described, as well as the problems
encountered in connection with the emergence of municipal districts.
Modern Russian history of community development, The nature of our TOSs is voluntary activities on a local level and initiatives inspired by local residents a transformation in the relationships between TOSs and local authorities. This includes moving from conflicts, lack of understanding and lack of support, to invitations to deliberate, share information, and the inclusion of representatives of TOSs in different municipal commissions and the working groups. Now the state tolerates, needs, and encourages community work in many ways, Our new and very important task is the expansion of formal education to address community issues, and the creation of a new specialty of community organizer. This will be similar to the Western Bachelor of Arts in Community Development with new competences (capacity to listen, explain, and help people to learn about and deal with local issues) and new skills (proposal writing, fundraising, crowdfunding, participatory methods of working with local constituents, and collaboration with local authorities on tasks such as participation in decision-making, negotiations, conflict resolution, and moderation). This education is for community leaders and activists,.
With the growing interest world-wide in making communities more age-friendly, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the factors that help or hinder communities in attaining this goal. In this paper, we focus on rural and remote communities and present perspectives of 42 experts in the areas of aging, rural and remote issues, and policy, who participated in a consensus conference on age-friendly rural and remote communities. Discussions highlighted that strengths in rural and remote communities, such as easy access to local leaders and existing partnerships, can help to further age-friendly goals; however, addressing major challenges, such as lack of infrastructure and limited availability of social and health services require regional or national government buy-in and funding opportunities. Age-friendly work in rural and remote communities is, therefore, ideally embedded in larger age-friendly initiatives and supported by regional or national policies, programs, and funding sources.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.