Фокусированное интервью по Роберту Мертону: особенности и критерии эффективности метода
Abstract. The article is devoted to a focused interview in the classic concept of Robert Merton. The purpose of the article is to reconstruct the features of the FI method and the criteria for assessing the quality of its results for further systematic comparisons of various outwardly similar techniques and systematization of criteria for assessing the quality of their results. The specifics of a focused interview are analyzed in detail. We consider four key criteria for the effectiveness of a focused interview (completeness, specificity, depth, personal context), an attempt is made to group the criterion on two grounds. The first basis is the "quality of stimulus reflection", which includes such characteristics as completeness, specificity. The second basis is the "quality of the reflection of the stimulus image," which includes the following characteristics in Robert Merton's concept: depth, personal context.
In a holistic process of focused interview, it is advisable to distinguish two phases: the phase of the organization of perception of the stimulus (situation) and the phase of reporting the results of the perception of the situation.
In the phase of the organization of perception (the same) situation (the same referent), focusing (directionality) is encouraged, whereas in the phase of communicating response reactions to a single (objectively identical) stimulus, the defocusing is fundamentally encouraged for all stimuli.
The author conclude that in analyzing the data of a focused interview, three components are distinguished: an objective situation, a subjective definition of the situation, reactions to the objective situation in accordance with its subjective definition.
The author conclude that the "focused interview" method, with all visible pluses, has a number of limitations: (1) narrowness, in a focused interview, the most specific and specified stimulus is discussed, (2) the method is limited, a focused interview in the Mertonian sense is not applicable when discussion of topics that are not and cannot be the subject of a common, shared by all experience, (3) time constraints - the incentive can be forgotten, revised due to the passage of a large amount of time from the moment of its impact to the moment of its discussion.