Development of a group of mobile robots for conducting comprehensive research of dangerous wave characteristics in coastal zones
New methods and approaches for carrying out comprehensive measurements of hazardous waves
(tsunami, storm surges) and background wave climate with telemetrically related group of
ground, surface and underwater based robots are discussed. The design and equipment list of the
ground robot are considered. It includes three various types of movers, an add-on for the
installation of devices on the mobile platform and the hardware part. Ground robot was tested in
2016 on the coast of Sakhalin Island, cape Svobodny. Based on test results there were made
conclusions on the possibility of increasing mobility of the ground robot and expanding its use.
Specially designed underwater robot collects data using a video inspection system and a
hydrostatic wave recorder with a string sensor. It has the ability to adjust the position of the
center of gravity to increase stability when driving on steep slopes of the seabed. The surface
robot was designed for conducting detailed bathymetry measurements of investigated water areas
by means of a multi-beam echo sounder. Underwater and surface-based robots were tested in July
2017 on Sakhalin Island. Both robotic systems were merged into the united local network. The
results of their operation were obtained to verify the data from measuring systems of the ground
robot. In 2018, it is planned to conduct a series of tests involving the three robots and merging
them into a local network to manage and process data in real-time.
The influence of nonlinear interaction of oppositely directed nonlinear waves in a shallow basin is studied theoretically and numerically within the nonlinear theory of shallow water. It is shown that this interaction leads to a change in the phase of propagation of the main wave, which is forced to propagate along the flow induced by the oncoming wave. The estimates of the undisturbed wave height at the time of interaction agree with the theoretical predictions. The phase shift during the interaction of undisturbed waves is sufficiently small, but becomes noticeable in the case of the propagation of breaking waves.
Tsunami forecast possibilities for areas with a small base of historical tsunamis have been discussed using the Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) method, which is based on a statistical analysis of a sufficiently large number of real and predictive earthquakes with a subsequent calculation of possible tsunami waves. This method has been used for a long-term tsunami hazard assessment on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The predicted wave heights have been shown to vary along the coastline due to the inhomogeneity of the coastal topography and specific features of the tsunami radiation pattern in the sea. The predicted wave heights for 1000 years vary in the range between 0.8 and 3.4 m.
Data from a field survey of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in the Sanriku area of Japan is used to plot the distribution function of runup heights along the coast. It is shown that the distribution function can be approximated by a theoretical log-normal curve. The characteristics of the distribution functions of the 2011 event are compared with data from two previous catastrophic tsunamis (1896 and 1933) that occurred in almost the same region. The number of observations during the last tsunami is very large, which provides an opportunity to revise the conception of the distribution of tsunami wave heights and the relationship between statistical characteristics and the number of observed runup heights suggested by Kajiura (1983) based on a small amount of data on previous tsunamis. The distribution function of the 2011 event demonstrates the sensitivity to the number of measurements (many of them cannot be considered independent measurements) and can be used to determine the characteristic scale of the coast, which corresponds to the statistical independence of observed wave heights.
Approaches to modeling a tsunami of meteoric origin are discussed. A brief overview of the asteroid and meteorite danger to the Earth is given. Formulas assessing the parameters of the tsunami caused by an asteroid entering the water are derived. The results of the numerical simulation of the effect of the angle of entry of the body into water on the characteristics of the resulting waves in the near field are given. The model based on the Navier–Stokes equations for multiphase flows with a free surface is used in calculations. The dimensions of perturbation are studied and the regularities of changes in the parameters of the source are discovered.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.