New methods and approaches for carrying out comprehensive measurements of hazardous waves (tsunami, storm surges) and background wave climate with telemetrically related group of ground, surface and underwater based robots are discussed. The design and equipment list of the ground robot are considered. It includes three various types of movers, an add-on for the installation of devices on the mobile platform and the hardware part. Ground robot was tested in 2016 on the coast of Sakhalin Island, cape Svobodny. Based on test results there were made conclusions on the possibility of increasing mobility of the ground robot and expanding its use. Specially designed underwater robot collects data using a video inspection system and a hydrostatic wave recorder with a string sensor. It has the ability to adjust the position of the center of gravity to increase stability when driving on steep slopes of the seabed. The surface robot was designed for conducting detailed bathymetry measurements of investigated water areas by means of a multi-beam echo sounder. Underwater and surface-based robots were tested in July 2017 on Sakhalin Island. Both robotic systems were merged into the united local network. The results of their operation were obtained to verify the data from measuring systems of the ground robot. In 2018, it is planned to conduct a series of tests involving the three robots and merging them into a local network to manage and process data in real-time.
The paper presents a unified computing technology for all stages of landslide-type tsunami. The computing technology is based on the numerical solution of the Navier - Stokes equations for multiphase flows. The method of numerical solution of the Navier - Stokes equations uses a fully implicit algorithm. This algorithm removes stiff restrictions on the time steps and allows simulating a tsunami propagation in arbitrarily large water basins. The basic sampling equation formulas, coefficient types as well as the basic steps of the computational procedure are presented. The landslide is modeled by a single phase with its density and viscosity, which is separated by the interface from water and air phases. A parallel algorithm of the method implementation based on an algebraic multigrid method is proposed for the effective usage of the method to calculate the tsunami in large water areas. The multigrid method of implementation is based on algorithms of global level and cascading collection. These algorithms do not impose restrictions on the scale parallelization and allow the use of the proposed technology in petaflop class systems. It shows the possibility of simulating all the stages of the landslide-type tsunamis: generation, propagation and runup. The verification of the method is carried out by using the tests provided by the experimental data. The mechanism of bathymetric data accounting and the technology of constructing three-dimensional grid models are described. The results of the comparison with the non-linear dispersion theory are presented for the historical tsunami that resulted from a volcanic eruption on the island of Montserrat, the Caribbean. The results of this comparison are in good agreement.
In our paper we describe some of the methods of the last 25 years which have been used extensively to examine and register tsunami traces - particularly by satellite imaging of coastal zones before and after a tsunami has struck, thus assessing quickly the extent of coastal inundation over large areas without the need of a site visit. Nearly all countries bordering oceans, seas and bodies of water have established digital systems of water level registration in the range of tsunami waves. In this article we describe methods of tsunami detection and runup measurements, some based on our own participation in post-tsunami surveys. Also, we discuss the possibility of using robotic systems to survey tsunami traces in hard-to-reach places.