The Value of PhD in the Changing World of Work: traditional and alternative research careers
The paper considers career patterns of researchers and the ways to assess their career achievements on the academic and non-academic labor markets. Taking into account the approaches developed earlier in the framework of the sociology of science, as well as on the basis of recent empirical studies, the authors propose an original approach to the study of a research career, determine the integral indicator of career achievements and assess the research career rank by means of the transition probabilities. The study is based on the data obtained during a survey among Russian researchers involving 828 respondents employed by organizations in the main prospective science and technology areas (academic and non-academic sectors). We suggest the research career achievement (RCA) indicator as an analytical tool for managing highly qualified research personnel. The use of PageRank method enabled to discern an extremely uneven distribution of the research career achievement value in the surveyed sample of researchers. The analysis revealed the main factors determining academic and non-academic research career patterns. The findings attest that the factors affecting career patterns are closely linked with the recognition that the researcher obtains or expects at three levels: individual – professional community – society as a whole.
Materials was published based on the results of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference “Sustainable Development: Society and Economics”, held as part of the International Labor Forum - 2019, organized by the Government of St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg State University on February 28 - March 01, 2019. The collection of materials is intended for students, bachelors, undergraduates, graduate students and teachers of economic specialties of universities, scientific and practical workers.
The article discusses the main current approaches to the interpretation of the term professional career, as well as the established lines of empirical study of the factors of career development. The author points out to the insufficient co-ordination between the efforts of theoretical conceptualization of career-related issues and the empirical studies of this subject. The author analyzes the most promising directions for further career research in terms of Bourdieu's theory of social space. Primarily, the author focuses on elaborating the concepts of career field and career capital related to it.
Results of empirical research of career opportunities in the sector of consulting are given on the example of the companies of "Big Four", and also career expectations and social and demographic portraits of young careerists of one of the largest consulting companies are analyzed in the article.
The volume provides an overview of theoretical and practical approaches to career counselling within the systems of secondary school an adult education in Russia and in selected countries where career counselling is most developed. The first chapter explains why career counselling is a timely issue that is gaining momentum in today’s world. The second chapter provides an account of the main theories in the area of career counselling that have served as a basis for developing current career counselling practices. The third chapter provides an overview of practices and approaches to career counselling in Finland, Germany, England, Canada and Hong Kong, whose career counselling systems are widely regarded as exemplary. This chapter also offers a comparative analysis of various components and formats of contemporary career counselling systems abroad. The fourth chapter provides an analysis of key career counselling stakeholders in Russia, as well as most common practices and formats. The final chapter provides a summary of the analysis, outlines key lessons Russia can learn from international experience and discusses prospects for the development of career counselling theories and practices in Russia.
There are results of the study "The problems of labor integration of able-bodied citizens in the city of Nizhny Novgorod", carried out in September-December 2013, consisting of 35 in-depth biographical interviews with able-bodied persons, reckoning on the basis of the sum of signs of low-resource groups.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.