Вовлеченность детей в дополнительное образование: контроль и ценность образования со стороны родителей
The paper explores parental attitudes towards additional education basing on
the materials of 20 interviews with parents of schoolchildren. We analyse the
ideas about the value and objectives of additional education among parents in
the context of three types of children’s involvement in additional education —
high, flickering and low. We then discuss parental practices of control over
children's education and of maintaining children's motivation and compare
their views on the problems solved by different areas of activities (foreign
languages, sports and dance, visual arts, revising the curriculum with the help
of tutors, computer knowledge). Also, we focus on the strategies of "maximal"
and "optimal" filling of out-of-school educational space that is common among
parents of children with high involvement in additional education. The paper
concludes with reflections on the significance of the family in the organization
of the child’s educational space since the parents and other members of the
family are the primary initiators, organizers, actors responsible for the child’s
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.