Коммуникация семьи и школы: ключевые особенности на современном этапе
A number of foreign studies in family-school relationships have shown that effective parent-school interaction is a crucial factor of parental school involvement, which, in its turn, has a positive impact on the whole schooling process. In Russia, there is little empirical data on the communication between parents and schools. The article describes the findings of an exploratory research that involved school administrators and parents of students at different levels of school education ( elementary, middle and high school) in a megalopolis of the Central Federal District. Interviews with parents and school representatives as well as parent questionnaire results are used to describe the most popular ways in which parents interact with schools, the main problems they encounter in such interaction, and the degree of parental involvement in school life. Direct contact with teachers is found to be the most efficient channel of parent–school communication. Parents see the main communication problems in disagreement about instruction and education issues and in the disengagement of schools or individual teachers. These problems become more acute in middle and high school. On the whole, the existing level of parental involvement in school is measured as low in this study.
The development of a knowledge-intense economy postulated the necessity to change the existing approach to manage intangibles. Though intellectual capital measurement and reporting is typically associated with private and listed companies, educational institutions also need to handle contemporary challenges as they mainly use and produce intangible resources. Schools, universities and research centers encounter increasing demand for transparency in reporting for stakeholders. The research field of IC in education is gaining popularity. But the majority of articles cover universities and other higher education institutions. There is a scarcity of IC measurement and reporting projects at secondary and primary education level. The country-specific IC context is also of potential interest for the researchers, managers, and policy makers in education. This paper represents the research project at the proposal stage. Our research goal is to investigate the current status quo of IC application in school education in St. Petersburg, Russia. First, we complete the content analysis of strategic documents to check if there is an established language for IC measurement, reporting and management in schools. Next, we use semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to analyze the importance of and country-specific and context-specific IC measurements, applications and adaptations from the stakeholders’ point of view. The research plan and the preliminary results of the content analysis are presented below.
The significance of the problem of parental involvement in children’s education has to do with the proven positive effects of parental involvement in school on children’s wellbeing. However, no universal comprehensive idea of family involvement types and strategies has been developed so far, and the jury is still out on the efficiency of various family-school interactions in use today. This study is designed to shed light on the forms of parental involvement, which may differ depending on family, student and school characteristics. The study seeks to operationalize the concept of parental involvement, describe parental involvement based on the findings of a large-scale survey, evaluate the dependence of parental involvement on family, student and school characteristics, suggest models to predict the level of parental involvement half way through elementary school, and develop recommendations for schools. Parents of 1,447 students from Krasnoyarsk and Kazan middle schools involved in the iPIPS project were surveyed twice using the same questionnaire, first as their children became first-graders and then at the beginning of the third grade. The survey contained questions on family demographic characteristics, parents’ at-home and at-school involvement, and parental satisfaction with school communication. It was established that parental perception of school communication climate is a much more important predictor of thirdgrade parent involvement in school than family sociodemographic characteristics or the level of child development assessed at baseline. On the whole, the results obtained do not confirm the benefit of using universal strategies to encourage parental involvement.
Dynamics of academic performance of Russian school students depending on cultural capital and the size of community is analyzed using PISA and TIMSS data. In order to reveal tendencies in TIMSS and PISA scores dynamics ten educational experts were interviewed. The last 15 years have witnessed a slight improvement in performance of Russian school students and a drop in social and territorial inequality. These changes do not affect all subject areas and result from educational attainment improvements in small populated localities and social groups of low cultural capital. Meanwhile, no growth has been observed in the scores of students with higher levels of cultural capital. The interviews shed light on possible changes in the education system associated with the dynamics of school students’ educational attainment.
The paper provides an overview of studies dedicated to correlations between school teacher salaries and regional economics and to the local factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. The paper describes the basic teacher pay indicators in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, ratio of salary to the average consumer bsket and to the per capita gross regional product. Based on the calculations performed using open databases of governmental authorities, a classification of regions by teacher pay levels was developed, providing seven clusters of regions. For each of the clusters, we have elaborated recommendations on teacher remuneration, identifying typical risks and challenges. These recommendations are designed to improve efficiency of activities that are part of the education policy by way of differentiating federal assistance. The conclusion is that, apart from the index of teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, which is the benchmark of governmental programs, one should also consider the ratios of salary to the average consumer basket and to the per capita gross regional product.