Polymorphisms of dopamine receptor genes DRD2 and DRD4 in African populations of Hadza and Datoga differing in the level of culturally permitted aggression
The key regulator in the control of aggressive behavior is dopamine receptors. Association of variants in these genes with aggression has been shown in modern populations. However, these studies have not been conducted in traditional cultures. The aim of our study was to investigate population features in distributions of allele and genotype frequencies of DRD2 rs1800497, DRD4 120 bp Ins, and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms and their associations with aggressive behavior in the traditional African populations of Hadza and Datoga, which display a contrast in their culturally permitted aggression. Overall, 820 healthy unrelated Hadza and Datoga individuals were studied. Self‐rated scores of aggression were collected using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction‐Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) was used to determine the genotype of each individual. We show that the Hadza and the Datoga differed significantly in allele and genotype frequencies of all studied loci. Our association analysis detected that only ethnicity and sex of individuals significantly influenced their aggression rank, but we failed to identify any associations of DRD2 rs1800497, DRD4 120 bp Ins, or DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with aggression. Thus, our data have no strong evidence to support the involvement of polymorphisms of DRD2 and DRD4 in controlling aggressive behavior.