Образ времени в языковом сознании русских и японцев
Perception of the image of time in Russian and Japanese linguocultures is analysed. An association experiment has become the main experimental method. Three samplings are under consideration: that of Russians of the early 1990s, that of Russians of the early 21st century, and that of the Japanese of the early 21st century. Russians and the Japanese share general human values, but cultural differences stand out in association reactions of Russian and Japanese respondents. The experimental material available shows that the Japanese are more time-conscious than Russians. The Japanese tend to consider things in long-term perspective, while for Russians medium-term perspective is more urgent. Specificity of hieroglyphs leads the Japanese to perceiving close connection between time and space, while the Russian language does not provide clues of the kind, which results in fewer reactions indicating space in Russian samplings. The perception of time image has altered in Russian linguoculture. Russians of the early 1990s lost axiological targets in the turmoil of the Soviet Union collapse, which was not characteristic of 21st century Russians, who started to regain emotional stability.
The chapter explores the semantics and pragmatics of the Russian temporal syntactic phraseme ‘X to X,’ (a construction characterized by a semantically restricted set of lexical items able to fill in its syntactic variables) which expresses either the speaker’s surprise at the fact that events go as planned (surprising punctuality interpretation) or the speaker’s surprise at the fact that unplanned events go as if they had been pre-planned (surprising fateful coincidence interpretation). While the construction is not unique, and occurs in other languages, its preferred interpretations are language-specific. The chapter demonstrates differences between Russian and English outlooks on time, based on their fundamental differences in linguistic worldviews. According to one of the central key ideas of the Russian linguistic worldview, events are difficult for human subjects to control, as they are commonly controlled by outside forces, such as fate, and therefore surprising punctuality interpretation prevails in Russian. English, which does not view punctuality as something out of the ordinary, favours the surprising fateful coincidence interpretation of this syntactic phraseme. The idea of fate in relation to temporality is also found in other languages, as demonstrated by Bernard Charlier’s research on Mongolian temporality in his chapter in the current volume.
In the first part of the paper, I examine cases of acceleration of perception and
cognition and provide my explanation of the mechanism of the e®ect. The explanation
rests on the conception of neuronal temporal frames, or windows of simultaneity. Frames
have di®erent standard durations and yield to stretching and compressing. I suggest it
to be the cause of the e®ect, as well as the ground for di®erences in perceptive time
scales of living beings. In the second part, I apply the conception of temporal frames
to model observation in the extended time scales that reach far beyond the temporal
perceptive niche of individual living beings. Duration of a frame is taken as the basic
parameter setting a particular time scale. By substituting a di®erent frame duration, we
set a hypothetical time scale and emulate observing reality in a wider or a narrower angle
of embracing events in time. I discuss the status of observer in its relation to objective
reality, and examine how reality does change its appearance when observed in di®erent
The article is devoted to the question of the ethno-cultural specificity of language consciousness. The author presents the results of free associative experiment and considers the image of хүгшэн эжы / grandmother in the language consciousness of the Russians and the Buryats speaking the Buryat language and also the Buryats whose mother tongue is Russian.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.