The article deals with the method of automatic detection of authors ' gender identity on the material of fiction prose of 1980-2000. During this period, there is a special construct, called "women's prose", which is characterized by a special genre and stylistic originality. We set ourselves the task to find out whether the concept of “women's prose” refers only to the non-text reality or is clearly reflected at the level of language. We have collected corpus of texts 1980-2000 and conducted that identified the most effective machine learning algorithms for the classification of male and female prose. This research focuses on methods for automatically determining the gender identity of authors on the material of prose from 1960 to 2000. The purpose of this work is to identify optimal methods for automatically determining the gender identity of the authors. The objectives of this study include highlighting the grammatical and stylistic features of prose from 1960 to 2000 and, in particular, women's prose and texts of XVIII - XIX centuries; tracing the changes in the distribution of usage different parts of speech and punctuation for a specified period and conducting an experiment to identify the most effective algorithm for the classification of literary texts by using machine learning. The analysis revealed that women and men often use in their texts the following parts of speech: nouns, verbs, prepositions, pronominal nouns, conjunctions, and adjectives that reflects the specific artistic style. In addition, analysis was made of the use of the most commonly used punctuation marks from the given list: question mark, exclamation point, comma, colon, semicolon, period, comma. It has been observed that women are more actively using the means of punctuation as a means of expression in modern literature: the share of the use of exclamation, question marks and commas the writers is much higher than the value obtained through the analysis of men’s texts. The work also contains an analysis of the distribution of parts of speech and punctuation of literary texts of men and women of XVIII-XIX centuries. We performed experiment to identify the most effective algorithm for determining the gender identity of the author. It was found that the most effective classifiers of literature are the implementation of algorithms as BayesNet and SMO.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the existing ideas about Russian literature in Britain at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. A brief overview of the advancement of works of Russian classics among British readers is given. The spread of Russian literature in Britain was progressing slowly for a long time due to the difficulty in translation and the lack of interest in Russia and Russian culture. However, at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, the situation changed in the literary community of Britain. This period saw a plethora of publications of translations of Russian fiction that were accomplished by professional translators, Slavonic scholars, and writers and appeared in periodicals and other print formats. The article provides an overview of the translation of works of F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, A.P. Chekhov, who have become the most understandable and accessible to the English mentality thanks to such outstanding translators as C. Garnett, Aylmer and Louise Maude, S.S. Koteliansky (who worked in collaboration with V. Woolf, J.M. Murry), R.E.C. Long and others. Having gained access to high-quality translations of Russian classics, British writers began to study their work in more detail. The British saw the influence of English and European writers (W. Shakespeare, Ch. Dickens, J.-J. Rousseau, J.W. Goethe, V. Hugo, etc.), e.g. in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky. However, later the creation of Russian writers influenced the Western novel, modifying it. There is an opinion that the works of A. P. Chekhov, made by Garnett, changed the English short story, making it exactly as we know it. V. Woolf, J. Joyce, B. Shaw, J. Galsworthy, A. Bennett and others admired the depth, style, and language of Russian writers. Translation of works of great Russian authors facilitated the flow of information about Russia and expanded the British view of the country and people. This once again confirms the fact of mutual cultural exchange between the two countries from a historical perspective. It can be argued that, despite all the complexities of the relationship, the mutual influence of the literatures of the two countries is obvious.
The paper is dedicated to the initiative of universal dependences (UD), with aim to develop cross-linguistically consistent annotation scheme of grammatical analysis. The purpose of this initiative is in simplification of cross-language research, unification of interlanguage linguistic typology, building a foundation for the automated multilingual systems and the universal cross-language text parser.
In the first part of the paper we describe the main problems of grammatical analysis of the multilingual text, advantages of unification of language features, the purposes of the project of universal dependences. Also we give the brief history of creation of the project. On the example of three languages – Russian, English and German we discusses the basic principles of universal dependences, such as morphology and syntax features.
In the second part of the article on the example of predicative we illustrate how to conduct corpus researches using UD. The article defines the technique of automatic identification of predicatives and examines their frequency distribution in the Russian UD corpus and a semantic categorization of the most often used predicatives.
Nowadays the ways to influence an audience by the rhetoric of public speeches are widely studied. The analysis of speech influence in institutional status-orientated discourse is a promising and actively developing area in modern Linguistics. The institutional discourse of the Spanish monarchy plays an important role in social relations in modern Spain. However, its features still have not been described in detail in Roman studies, especially in the linguopragmatic perspective. Moreover, due to the current socio-economic and political context it is extremely important to analyze what linguistic instruments Felipe VI uses to save the image of the Spanish Crown. The present paper deals with the public speeches of the Spanish King issued from 2014 to 2020 and focuses on the “external” addressee. Felipe VI’s messages represent a fundamental resource to create a favorable image of Spain in the international arena and to convince the world community of the necessity for peaceful coexistence and international cooperation. The speeches, which are ideologically driven and politically motivated, are analyzed in the context of linguo-pragmatics. The theoretical value of this paper is in providing an exhaustive analysis of speech strategies and tactics used in the King’s messages delivered abroad. Firstly, the country’s presentation strategy allows the monarch to emphasize that Spain belongs to the European Union and plays a crucial role in the international arena while making decisions and fighting challenges. Secondly, the emotional strategy is used to create a trustworthy atmosphere (mainly by appealing to the sense of pride) and to give moral support to Europeans and other nations. Thirdly, the interpretation strategy may be considered a conventional resource used to strengthen the institution of the monarchy in the eyes of the international community. Finally, agitation and argumentative strategies are employed to convince the addressee of the necessity to strengthen international cooperation.
The article is a reflection of practice-related research that aimed at bringing together corpus linguistics tools and teaching in L2 classroom. The focus throughout is on exploring the relationship between corpus analysis and language acquisition practice and how far the usage of corpus tools can provide answers to the questions and issues that arise in practice of language teaching.
Structurally, the article gives a brief overview of corpora influence on language teaching over the recent decades, and then tries to elaborate on how it feeds into content selection, language teaching material as well as classroom techniques. Specifically, some attention is devoted to overwhelming contrast between spoken and written register, which was described by Biber et al  as a result of a large-scale corpus-based analysis. The corpus study influences our understanding of both quantitative and qualitative implications for learner vocabulary, which are also discussed in the main body. In conclusion, we share some insights into how much corpus-based material is advisable to include as we develop our syllabi since we admit that it might be rather time-consuming to turn corpus examples into exercises and classroom activities.
The article states that the contribution of corpus research to understanding and describing the language we teach is hardly disputable. What is more, the superficial indication that a given course book has been corpus-informed is only the tip of the iceberg. As Scot and Tribble  put it “the very foundations of Linguistics have been shaken; in some cases the movement of the
tectonic plates has thrust up new Himalayas where before there was apparently level ground.” [p. 4]. Thus, technological shift shook long held notions in language education, as seemingly explicit grammar rules gave way to less explicable authentic usage with a view to understanding the English outside the classroom.
On the practical side, the paper presents a set of corpus–based tasks, follow-up activities and expected results. These aimed at awareness-raising to register differences and sociolinguistic implications of hedging; additional practice for grammar patterns and idioms is presented. Within corpus-based activities learners are also presented with some contrasting statistics for cohesive devices use based on native speaker and non-native speaker writing. As a way of concluding remark, we suggest that corpus be used as a reference tool together with grammar books and dictionaries by both teachers and learners.
Despite the abolishment of discriminatory laws and practices in the United States and the subsequent social and legal measures, racism continues to be one of the most acute problems of American society. Modern racism is expressed in new specific forms, often veiled and difficult to distinguish (covert, subtle racism), which include excessive politeness or the specific use of euphemisms. As a means of expressing basic ideological positions, language also serves as a powerful tool to influence public consciousness. The article reveals the ways to reproduce and enforce racial ideology through language. The opposition of social constructs «whiteness» and «blackness» is directly reflected in linguistic phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of political correctness, which has become an indispensable part of the language practice in Western society. The author also reveals the content of colorblind ideology. In contrast to the policies of multiculturalism, the concept of colorblindness does not recognize any differences between racial and ethnic groups. However, in American discourse, this ideology is often associated with covert racism, since it leads to the silencing of existing racial problems and makes any mention of races and racism a taboo subject. It is suggested that American English is ideologically linked to the categories of race in the minds of its speakers. Using the example of African-American culture and African American English (AAE), the author conducts a sociolinguistic analysis of such phenomena as «linguistic appropriation» and «linguistic discrimination». Diametrically opposed problems characterize the American reality: on the one hand, the problem of preserving the linguistic and cultural identity of ethnic minorities, on the other hand, their integration into American society. Drawing on the concept of “double consciousness” by W.E.B. Dubois, the author argues that this dualism, as one of the most important consequences of slavery and segregation, characterizes both African Americans and European Americans.
Biographies are used in teaching a wide range of subjects, thus representing a universal type of material that can be valuable in a TESL classroom. The benefits of this study bear relevance to assessing writing strategies that may be used by experts in a variety of fields of inquiry. The article focuses on assessing stylistic variation in biographical texts in English, using the material of a number of highly acclaimed biographies of Sir Winston Spencer Churchill. The article contains an analysis of the conceptual and linguistic parameters of stylistic variation in biographical texts (based on modern biographies of W.S. Churchill written by authors for whom English is their first language). The study considers a number of linguistic levels: morphology and vocabulary – in connection with the kinds of inherent and adherent connotations conveyed; minor and major kinds of syntax are studied in relation to the stylistic neutrality and non-neutrality of the units under investigation. The functioning of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs is analyzed in order to establish the type of general conceptual characteristics the texts demonstrate. A specialized and non-emotional type of content is based on the predominance of formal, specialized connotations; an emotional and non-specialized type of content is, on the contrary, constituted by emotional, expressive and evaluative connotations. The analytic technique developed shows that there is a correlation between the conceptual characteristics of a biographical text and the kind of argumentation it contains. The specialized and non-emotional type of content correlates with arguments supported by factual data; the emotional and non-specialized type corresponds to arguments lacking references to other sources. The results of the analysis undertaken can be applied to making courses on stylistics of the English and other languages. The conclusions can be used to outline a writing strategy for professional journalists, historians, writers, politicians, economists, etc.
The paper deals with linguistic hedging, which is being researched within the corpus approach and accounted for through sociolinguistics. The reasoning behind the choice of the means of hedging is also explained within the frame of the Politeness Theory. We have considered several definitions of hedging and listed some linguistic means of its manifestation. In addition, the article develops the idea of using corpus tools to analyze hedging from both quantitative and contextual perspective. The data and the tools of the British National Corpus have been used to exemplify corpus research of lexical bundles, or word clusters. The research also elaborates on the ambiguity of cross language correspondences.
The article reveals the decoding mechanisms of linguoculturemes occurring in the translation of the novel “Zuleikha opens her eyes” by G. Yakhina into the English language. In the original text of the novel linguoculturemes express ethnical and socio-cultural identity of the main character Zuleikha. Working on the translation of the novel Lisa Hayden, the translator, uses different types of adaptive transcoding for inter-language and intercultural communication. The translation is characterized by double transcoding that is based on three languages: Tatar, Russian and English. Tatar words and expressions with explicit national cultural elements form a cultural background in the novel and often have no equivalents or definitions in the English language. The comparative analysis of the original text and its translations highlight a number of different groups of linguoculturemes, such as terms for members of ethno-cultural community and types of address, names of mythical and religious characters, names of objects, elements of interior design of a peasant’s home, pieces of furniture, and clothes. Linguoculturemes also help to recreate the historical atmosphere in Russia in the 1920–1930s, as well as the relationships in a traditional patriarchal family, conventional values of a local ethno-cultural community and socio-political realia depicted in the novel. A complex hierarchy of contextual image levels of the novel in the process of translation of the novel. The outer level of the story (the plot) is being transformed and many story lines are translated into English without any significant semantic change. Universal human problems represented via archetypes are well received by the English-language readers regardless of their language and socio-cultural background. The inner levels of the story expressing specific social relationships and interactions, ethnocultural, religious, and ethnopsychological stands with the help of linguoculturemes appear to be “encoded” for readers with different language backgrounds, but open in their complete semantic value to the bearers of the given social, religious and ethnical cultures. The authors’ message is that the English translation of the text does not lack in national cultural identity or ethnocultural values, it is just that these values become secondary and, as a r esult, harm the intimacy of the unique world perception of the main character.
The article is devoted to the specificity of metaphorical modeling of personological knowledge in scientific linguistic articles by M. Black and J. Searle. The analysis is aimed at identification of common and distinctive domains of metaphorical shift in scientific linguistic texts and their comparison with the dominant ones typical of the linguistic discourse. Our metaphorical models building revealed that personological knowledge, that is a unique personal vision of respective linguistic objects, is presented in M. Black’s article by the models (ideas) of Visible-Invisible, Creativity, Riddle, Relationship, Impact, System and Power and in J. Searle’s article – by these of Sight. The most productive metaphorical models triggering sense development of the conceptions are found in the hypothetic subtext of the scientific articles written by M. Black and J. Searle.
In the article attitudes to eternity in Russian and Japanese linguocultures are traced on the basis of association experiments. The worldview of Russians of the early 1990s, as well as of Russians and the Japanese of the early 21st century, is under consideration. A series of free association experiments has been carried out to analyse the language consciousness of Russians and the Japanese respectively. Relevant association fields and their semantic components have been examined and juxtaposed. A conclusion is made that Russians and the Japanese share general human values, though cultural differences result in national-specific peculiarities of the image of eternity in language consciousness of Russian and Japanese native speakers.
Both Russians and the Japanese associate eternity with infiniteness, life and immortality. The experimental resources available shows that Russians tend to associate the image of eternity with astronomy, while the Japanese often refer it to philosophical categories. Semantically, the notion of eternity is broader in Japanese than in Russian. For this reason the Japanese, unlike Russians, emphasised the meaning of constancy in their reactions. Discrepancies in interpreting the image of time have also been discovered when comparing the association reactions of the two Russian samplings; these testify to the influence of a social-economic factor on the worldview of a person representing a certain linguoculture. The hardships of the turbulent 1990s resulted in Russians` loosing their value orientation. They regained their confidence and ability to analyse phenomena judiciously only with the establishment of comparative stability in the 2000s. In particular, it is only in the later Russian sampling that one can find the reactions “always” and “forever” that signify the eternity of time. In all instances, the representatives of all samplings perceive eternity as everlasting and boundless, thus manifesting their natural attitude to this phenomenon.
Perception of the image of time in Russian and Japanese linguocultures is analysed. An association experiment has become the main experimental method. Three samplings are under consideration: that of Russians of the early 1990s, that of Russians of the early 21st century, and that of the Japanese of the early 21st century. Russians and the Japanese share general human values, but cultural differences stand out in association reactions of Russian and Japanese respondents. The experimental material available shows that the Japanese are more time-conscious than Russians. The Japanese tend to consider things in long-term perspective, while for Russians medium-term perspective is more urgent. Specificity of hieroglyphs leads the Japanese to perceiving close connection between time and space, while the Russian language does not provide clues of the kind, which results in fewer reactions indicating space in Russian samplings. The perception of time image has altered in Russian linguoculture. Russians of the early 1990s lost axiological targets in the turmoil of the Soviet Union collapse, which was not characteristic of 21st century Russians, who started to regain emotional stability.
In this article attitudes of Russian and Japanese native speakers to the image of life is analysed on the basis of associative experiments. Russian culture is viewed across two time strata: the early 1990s and the early 21st century. It is argued that the Japanese tend to be pragmatic, while Russians tend to be idealistic. It is postulated that modern Japanese culture is collectivistic and modern Russian culture is individualistic. It is also noteworthy that the evident optimism specific for Russian respon- Представления о мире и языки: исследование взаимодействий 105 dents was ensured largely by women. This testifies to the ability of women to cope with stressful situations better than men do.
Perceptions of deceit in Russian and Japanese linguocultures are compared on the basis of associations experiments. It has been shown that false representation of true intentions is perceived differently by Russians and the Japanese. The Japanese comprehend deceit as a moral problem to a greater extent than Russians. At the same time, it is characteristic of the Japanese linguoculture to hide one’s true intentions by putting on an imaginary “mask”. The Russian linguoculture demonstrates habituation to deceit; this conclusion is testified by lesser emotionality of reactions collected from the 21st century Russians as compared to the 1990s Russians. At the same time, Russian and Japanese linguocultures share the same belief that the deceit is the opposite of the truth.
The article is devoted to udivleniye ‘wonder’ as a language-specific word in order to show its specific conceptual configuration in the Russian language consciousness. According to the National Russian Corpus, wonder is explicated, in its explanatory expressions, as a cause and as a consequence in regard to related feelings and experiences, as well as situations in which it is being experienced. As many examples have shown, people are always surprised when something exceeds expectations contrary to usual opinion or attitude. In this way, wonder is not only an emotional but also a mental state as a cause (stimulus) of a corresponding emotional reaction. According to available data, udivleniye ‘wonder’ may be ordinary or extraordinary by statement; deep, strong or easy by intensity; unperceived, vague or inexplicable by the degree of awareness; genuine, sincere, cast, false or ostentatious by authenticity; calm, reserved, timid, insane or silent by external manifestation; pleasant, unpleasant, painful or heavy by physical sensations; painful, cold, arrogant or chilly by emotional and psychological experiences; innocent, naive, stupid or idiotic by the criterion of moral evaluation. In its most manifestations, udivleniye ‘wonder’ is related to different concepts like bewilderment, curiosity, admiration as well as disbelief, frustration, annoyance, outrage, condemnation, anxiety, fright and fear that refer to some typical wonder-situations in which they occur as a possible reaction to a subject of wonder: cf. wonder → joy (frustration, outrage, etc.). The propositional model, built on the National Corpus, relies on information which includes predicates associated to udivleniye ‘wonder’ varying according to their position in the syntactic structure of a proposition. As a semantic object, wonder is compatible with the verbs test, cause, initiate, express, show, depict, obscure; as a semantic subject, it is compatible with emerge, exude, spread, cover, borrow, erode, pass, etc.
The article is concerned with voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ as a language-specific word in order to show its specific conceptual configuration in the Russian language consciousness. In this regard, the National Corpus seems to be most appropriate since a conceptual configuration of the analyzed emotional concept is not given in a “finished” form in any single utterance, but may be reconstructed only on the sum total of all possible utterances. It can be manifested in many different ways: distribution, predisposition to be associated with some emotional attitudes, concepts, propositional and metaphoric models. According to the available data, voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is related, in its most manifestations, to many different concepts like gratitude, adoration, fascination, sympathy, mistrust, pity, fear, envy, that allow us to reconstruct some basic delight-situations as a delight-adoration, delight-approval, delight-surprise, delight-gratitude, delight-envy, etc. As such, the delight-emotion is caused not by an event itself, but what the subject thinks about it. In this perspective, voskhishcheniye is not only an emotional but also a mental state that causes a corresponding emotional reaction. The propositional model, built on the National Corpus, includes information that predicates associated with voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ vary according to the position in a syntactic structure of a proposition. As a semantic object voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is felt, expressed, shown, delivered, caused, excited, anticipated, divided, given out, performed; as a semantic subject it worries, delivers gladness, covers your eyes. In a metaphoric mapping voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is redefined over the categorical boundaries in terms of propositional models more appropriately applied to power, aquatic substance, honey or fire. By analogy with power it embraces and seizes; by analogy with an aquatic substance, it overfills and overflows; by analogy with fire it flames up and goes out, etc. And there are no other auxiliary objects more appropriate to characterize voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ in Russian except just power, aquatic substance, honey and fire, since native speakers don’t consider expressions like sweetest-smelling delight, awash with delight or to be smothered by delight as metaphoric ones, but rather take them for the authentic characteristic of voskhishcheniye ‘delight’.
The paper focuses on the ways an abstract quality – mental characteristics of human beings – is conceptualized in English. The ways of conceptualization are revealed through the etymological analysis of words and presented diachronically starting from Old English. In particular, it is shown that mental qualities are interpreted through the following metaphorical concepts: LIGHT, DARKNESS, MOTION, CONTAINER, ACQUISITION and some other ones. All the revealed metaphorical concepts belong to the field of archetypical human concepts.