The purpose of the article is to analyze the existing ideas about Russian literature in Britain at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. A brief overview of the advancement of works of Russian classics among British readers is given. The spread of Russian literature in Britain was progressing slowly for a long time due to the difficulty in translation and the lack of interest in Russia and Russian culture. However, at the end of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, the situation changed in the literary community of Britain. This period saw a plethora of publications of translations of Russian fiction that were accomplished by professional translators, Slavonic scholars, and writers and appeared in periodicals and other print formats. The article provides an overview of the translation of works of F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, A.P. Chekhov, who have become the most understandable and accessible to the English mentality thanks to such outstanding translators as C. Garnett, Aylmer and Louise Maude, S.S. Koteliansky (who worked in collaboration with V. Woolf, J.M. Murry), R.E.C. Long and others. Having gained access to high-quality translations of Russian classics, British writers began to study their work in more detail. The British saw the influence of English and European writers (W. Shakespeare, Ch. Dickens, J.-J. Rousseau, J.W. Goethe, V. Hugo, etc.), e.g. in the works of F.M. Dostoevsky. However, later the creation of Russian writers influenced the Western novel, modifying it. There is an opinion that the works of A. P. Chekhov, made by Garnett, changed the English short story, making it exactly as we know it. V. Woolf, J. Joyce, B. Shaw, J. Galsworthy, A. Bennett and others admired the depth, style, and language of Russian writers. Translation of works of great Russian authors facilitated the flow of information about Russia and expanded the British view of the country and people. This once again confirms the fact of mutual cultural exchange between the two countries from a historical perspective. It can be argued that, despite all the complexities of the relationship, the mutual influence of the literatures of the two countries is obvious.
The paper is dedicated to the initiative of universal dependences (UD), with aim to develop cross-linguistically consistent annotation scheme of grammatical analysis. The purpose of this initiative is in simplification of cross-language research, unification of interlanguage linguistic typology, building a foundation for the automated multilingual systems and the universal cross-language text parser.
In the first part of the paper we describe the main problems of grammatical analysis of the multilingual text, advantages of unification of language features, the purposes of the project of universal dependences. Also we give the brief history of creation of the project. On the example of three languages – Russian, English and German we discusses the basic principles of universal dependences, such as morphology and syntax features.
In the second part of the article on the example of predicative we illustrate how to conduct corpus researches using UD. The article defines the technique of automatic identification of predicatives and examines their frequency distribution in the Russian UD corpus and a semantic categorization of the most often used predicatives.
Despite the abolishment of discriminatory laws and practices in the United States and the subsequent social and legal measures, racism continues to be one of the most acute problems of American society. Modern racism is expressed in new specific forms, often veiled and difficult to distinguish (covert, subtle racism), which include excessive politeness or the specific use of euphemisms. As a means of expressing basic ideological positions, language also serves as a powerful tool to influence public consciousness. The article reveals the ways to reproduce and enforce racial ideology through language. The opposition of social constructs «whiteness» and «blackness» is directly reflected in linguistic phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of political correctness, which has become an indispensable part of the language practice in Western society. The author also reveals the content of colorblind ideology. In contrast to the policies of multiculturalism, the concept of colorblindness does not recognize any differences between racial and ethnic groups. However, in American discourse, this ideology is often associated with covert racism, since it leads to the silencing of existing racial problems and makes any mention of races and racism a taboo subject. It is suggested that American English is ideologically linked to the categories of race in the minds of its speakers. Using the example of African-American culture and African American English (AAE), the author conducts a sociolinguistic analysis of such phenomena as «linguistic appropriation» and «linguistic discrimination». Diametrically opposed problems characterize the American reality: on the one hand, the problem of preserving the linguistic and cultural identity of ethnic minorities, on the other hand, their integration into American society. Drawing on the concept of “double consciousness” by W.E.B. Dubois, the author argues that this dualism, as one of the most important consequences of slavery and segregation, characterizes both African Americans and European Americans.
Biographies are used in teaching a wide range of subjects, thus representing a universal type of material that can be valuable in a TESL classroom. The benefits of this study bear relevance to assessing writing strategies that may be used by experts in a variety of fields of inquiry. The article focuses on assessing stylistic variation in biographical texts in English, using the material of a number of highly acclaimed biographies of Sir Winston Spencer Churchill. The article contains an analysis of the conceptual and linguistic parameters of stylistic variation in biographical texts (based on modern biographies of W.S. Churchill written by authors for whom English is their first language). The study considers a number of linguistic levels: morphology and vocabulary – in connection with the kinds of inherent and adherent connotations conveyed; minor and major kinds of syntax are studied in relation to the stylistic neutrality and non-neutrality of the units under investigation. The functioning of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs is analyzed in order to establish the type of general conceptual characteristics the texts demonstrate. A specialized and non-emotional type of content is based on the predominance of formal, specialized connotations; an emotional and non-specialized type of content is, on the contrary, constituted by emotional, expressive and evaluative connotations. The analytic technique developed shows that there is a correlation between the conceptual characteristics of a biographical text and the kind of argumentation it contains. The specialized and non-emotional type of content correlates with arguments supported by factual data; the emotional and non-specialized type corresponds to arguments lacking references to other sources. The results of the analysis undertaken can be applied to making courses on stylistics of the English and other languages. The conclusions can be used to outline a writing strategy for professional journalists, historians, writers, politicians, economists, etc.
The paper deals with linguistic hedging, which is being researched within the corpus approach and accounted for through sociolinguistics. The reasoning behind the choice of the means of hedging is also explained within the frame of the Politeness Theory. We have considered several definitions of hedging and listed some linguistic means of its manifestation. In addition, the article develops the idea of using corpus tools to analyze hedging from both quantitative and contextual perspective. The data and the tools of the British National Corpus have been used to exemplify corpus research of lexical bundles, or word clusters. The research also elaborates on the ambiguity of cross language correspondences.
The article is devoted to the specificity of metaphorical modeling of personological knowledge in scientific linguistic articles by M. Black and J. Searle. The analysis is aimed at identification of common and distinctive domains of metaphorical shift in scientific linguistic texts and their comparison with the dominant ones typical of the linguistic discourse. Our metaphorical models building revealed that personological knowledge, that is a unique personal vision of respective linguistic objects, is presented in M. Black’s article by the models (ideas) of Visible-Invisible, Creativity, Riddle, Relationship, Impact, System and Power and in J. Searle’s article – by these of Sight. The most productive metaphorical models triggering sense development of the conceptions are found in the hypothetic subtext of the scientific articles written by M. Black and J. Searle.
In the article attitudes to eternity in Russian and Japanese linguocultures are traced on the basis of association experiments. The worldview of Russians of the early 1990s, as well as of Russians and the Japanese of the early 21st century, is under consideration. A series of free association experiments has been carried out to analyse the language consciousness of Russians and the Japanese respectively. Relevant association fields and their semantic components have been examined and juxtaposed. A conclusion is made that Russians and the Japanese share general human values, though cultural differences result in national-specific peculiarities of the image of eternity in language consciousness of Russian and Japanese native speakers.
Both Russians and the Japanese associate eternity with infiniteness, life and immortality. The experimental resources available shows that Russians tend to associate the image of eternity with astronomy, while the Japanese often refer it to philosophical categories. Semantically, the notion of eternity is broader in Japanese than in Russian. For this reason the Japanese, unlike Russians, emphasised the meaning of constancy in their reactions. Discrepancies in interpreting the image of time have also been discovered when comparing the association reactions of the two Russian samplings; these testify to the influence of a social-economic factor on the worldview of a person representing a certain linguoculture. The hardships of the turbulent 1990s resulted in Russians` loosing their value orientation. They regained their confidence and ability to analyse phenomena judiciously only with the establishment of comparative stability in the 2000s. In particular, it is only in the later Russian sampling that one can find the reactions “always” and “forever” that signify the eternity of time. In all instances, the representatives of all samplings perceive eternity as everlasting and boundless, thus manifesting their natural attitude to this phenomenon.
Perception of the image of time in Russian and Japanese linguocultures is analysed. An association experiment has become the main experimental method. Three samplings are under consideration: that of Russians of the early 1990s, that of Russians of the early 21st century, and that of the Japanese of the early 21st century. Russians and the Japanese share general human values, but cultural differences stand out in association reactions of Russian and Japanese respondents. The experimental material available shows that the Japanese are more time-conscious than Russians. The Japanese tend to consider things in long-term perspective, while for Russians medium-term perspective is more urgent. Specificity of hieroglyphs leads the Japanese to perceiving close connection between time and space, while the Russian language does not provide clues of the kind, which results in fewer reactions indicating space in Russian samplings. The perception of time image has altered in Russian linguoculture. Russians of the early 1990s lost axiological targets in the turmoil of the Soviet Union collapse, which was not characteristic of 21st century Russians, who started to regain emotional stability.
In this article attitudes of Russian and Japanese native speakers to the image of life is analysed on the basis of associative experiments. Russian culture is viewed across two time strata: the early 1990s and the early 21st century. It is argued that the Japanese tend to be pragmatic, while Russians tend to be idealistic. It is postulated that modern Japanese culture is collectivistic and modern Russian culture is individualistic. It is also noteworthy that the evident optimism specific for Russian respon- Представления о мире и языки: исследование взаимодействий 105 dents was ensured largely by women. This testifies to the ability of women to cope with stressful situations better than men do.
Perceptions of deceit in Russian and Japanese linguocultures are compared on the basis of associations experiments. It has been shown that false representation of true intentions is perceived differently by Russians and the Japanese. The Japanese comprehend deceit as a moral problem to a greater extent than Russians. At the same time, it is characteristic of the Japanese linguoculture to hide one’s true intentions by putting on an imaginary “mask”. The Russian linguoculture demonstrates habituation to deceit; this conclusion is testified by lesser emotionality of reactions collected from the 21st century Russians as compared to the 1990s Russians. At the same time, Russian and Japanese linguocultures share the same belief that the deceit is the opposite of the truth.
The article is devoted to udivleniye ‘wonder’ as a language-specific word in order to show its specific conceptual configuration in the Russian language consciousness. According to the National Russian Corpus, wonder is explicated, in its explanatory expressions, as a cause and as a consequence in regard to related feelings and experiences, as well as situations in which it is being experienced. As many examples have shown, people are always surprised when something exceeds expectations contrary to usual opinion or attitude. In this way, wonder is not only an emotional but also a mental state as a cause (stimulus) of a corresponding emotional reaction. According to available data, udivleniye ‘wonder’ may be ordinary or extraordinary by statement; deep, strong or easy by intensity; unperceived, vague or inexplicable by the degree of awareness; genuine, sincere, cast, false or ostentatious by authenticity; calm, reserved, timid, insane or silent by external manifestation; pleasant, unpleasant, painful or heavy by physical sensations; painful, cold, arrogant or chilly by emotional and psychological experiences; innocent, naive, stupid or idiotic by the criterion of moral evaluation. In its most manifestations, udivleniye ‘wonder’ is related to different concepts like bewilderment, curiosity, admiration as well as disbelief, frustration, annoyance, outrage, condemnation, anxiety, fright and fear that refer to some typical wonder-situations in which they occur as a possible reaction to a subject of wonder: cf. wonder → joy (frustration, outrage, etc.). The propositional model, built on the National Corpus, relies on information which includes predicates associated to udivleniye ‘wonder’ varying according to their position in the syntactic structure of a proposition. As a semantic object, wonder is compatible with the verbs test, cause, initiate, express, show, depict, obscure; as a semantic subject, it is compatible with emerge, exude, spread, cover, borrow, erode, pass, etc.
The article is concerned with voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ as a language-specific word in order to show its specific conceptual configuration in the Russian language consciousness. In this regard, the National Corpus seems to be most appropriate since a conceptual configuration of the analyzed emotional concept is not given in a “finished” form in any single utterance, but may be reconstructed only on the sum total of all possible utterances. It can be manifested in many different ways: distribution, predisposition to be associated with some emotional attitudes, concepts, propositional and metaphoric models. According to the available data, voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is related, in its most manifestations, to many different concepts like gratitude, adoration, fascination, sympathy, mistrust, pity, fear, envy, that allow us to reconstruct some basic delight-situations as a delight-adoration, delight-approval, delight-surprise, delight-gratitude, delight-envy, etc. As such, the delight-emotion is caused not by an event itself, but what the subject thinks about it. In this perspective, voskhishcheniye is not only an emotional but also a mental state that causes a corresponding emotional reaction. The propositional model, built on the National Corpus, includes information that predicates associated with voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ vary according to the position in a syntactic structure of a proposition. As a semantic object voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is felt, expressed, shown, delivered, caused, excited, anticipated, divided, given out, performed; as a semantic subject it worries, delivers gladness, covers your eyes. In a metaphoric mapping voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ is redefined over the categorical boundaries in terms of propositional models more appropriately applied to power, aquatic substance, honey or fire. By analogy with power it embraces and seizes; by analogy with an aquatic substance, it overfills and overflows; by analogy with fire it flames up and goes out, etc. And there are no other auxiliary objects more appropriate to characterize voskhishcheniye ‘delight’ in Russian except just power, aquatic substance, honey and fire, since native speakers don’t consider expressions like sweetest-smelling delight, awash with delight or to be smothered by delight as metaphoric ones, but rather take them for the authentic characteristic of voskhishcheniye ‘delight’.
The paper focuses on the ways an abstract quality – mental characteristics of human beings – is conceptualized in English. The ways of conceptualization are revealed through the etymological analysis of words and presented diachronically starting from Old English. In particular, it is shown that mental qualities are interpreted through the following metaphorical concepts: LIGHT, DARKNESS, MOTION, CONTAINER, ACQUISITION and some other ones. All the revealed metaphorical concepts belong to the field of archetypical human concepts.
The article is devoted to lyubopytstvo ‘curiosity’ as a language-specific word in order to show its specific conceptual configuration in the Russian language consciousness. In this regard, the National Russian Corpus is more appropriate, because a conceptual configuration of an analyzed concept is not present in a “finished” form in any single utterance, but may be reconstructed only on the totality of all possible utterances. It can be manifested in many different ways: distribution, ability to accumulate some Russian “key ideas”, predisposition to be associated with some emotional attitudes, concepts, propositional and metaphorical models. According to the National Russian Corpus, curiosity is usually felt for everything which may be of interest, and defies the imagination: another man’s life, news and policy, death, abroad and foreigners, origins and workings of the universe, friends’ husband’s salary, danger and suspense, someone’s life stories, scientific discoveries, etc. In different contexts, curiosity is defined in relation to interest, surprise, excitement, hope, desire, idleness, sin, etc., that allow us to reconstruct some conventional situations of curiosity, as well as related feelings, acts, opinions and axiological norms, in conformity with different “conceptual schemas” of curiosity as a cognitive interest, boredom, idleness, or sin. The propositional model provides information that predicates applied to lyubopytstvo ‘curiosity’ vary with the position in the syntactic structure of the proposition. As a semantic object curiosity is felt, constrained, excited, masked, and satisfied; as a semantic subject it appears, covers, grows, and encourages. In the metaphoric mapping, lyubopytstvo ‘curiosity’ is redefined over categorical boundaries in terms of a propositional model appropriated for an inner voice, a human being, a living creature, an inevitable force, or a flammable mixture. By analogy with an inner voice it calls, tells and counsels; by analogy with a living creature it is waking up, brings out; by analogy with the beast it gnaws and bites; by analogy with an inevitable force it covers, overcomes, leads and wins; by analogy with a peculiarly flammable mixture it inflames and burns. Such use becomes so common that native speakers don’t pay more attention to metaphorical expressions like curiosity killed someone or to burn and consume oneself in curiosity but take them almost for the authentic characteristic of curiosity.
The article presents the results of a comprehensive socio–psychological study, including qualitative and quantitative methods. The role of cultural factor in the formation of adaptation mechanisms of foreign students studying in Russian Universities is demonstrated.The number of international students is one of the indicators of how successful an institution is on the world market of educational services. The international character of modern education can be noticed in the increase of academic mobility and the growth of numbers of international students. Most often, people manage to adapt to a new socio-cultural environment by making changes to their stereotypes and behavioural patterns; however, they remain internally alienated from the
social environment. Increasing popularity of the subject of international students and creating a favourable educational environment for them in Russia makes the researchers interested in studying the peculiarities of how such students adapt to radically new living and learning conditions. Successful adaptation ensures fast integration into the learning process and overall increase in quality of education for those young people.
The results of the presented study contribute to the identification of coping strategies, adaptation features, and anticipatory mechanisms depending on the cultural affiliation. The respondents were representatives of polychronic, polyactive and highly contextual culture - students from Arab countries (n = 64) and the representatives of low contextual and polychronous cultures - students from India (n = 73) studying in Russia from one to three years. It is easier to adapt to the learning process to the Arabic-speaking students, they are more involved in a group, and situational anticipatory competence is more developed among them than among the representatives of polychronic and low contextual culture (Indian students). At the same time, Indians are more eager to seek social support, and it is extremely difficult for them to predict situations associated with time and interpersonal communication.
Switching from the source language to the target language is an essential and crucial element of the translation process which determines to a large extent the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication in translation. It is proposed that such switching be viewed as the switching of linguacultural codes, thus allowing us to stress the importance of viewing translation as a contact of two linguacultures. The process of linguacultural code-switching is based on a number of mechanisms, mental processes and operations, one of them being access to and retrieval of linguistic means used to describe a particular fragment of reality in the target linguaculture. It is understood that effective language retrieval depends on the “distinctness” of linguistic knowledge based on the stimulus-response connection between conceptual information and its linguistic manifestation. It is proposed that frame should be viewed as a mental structure for translator’s linguistic and cultural knowledge. A number of characteristics of the frame which suggest that it can ensure the above-mentioned distinctness of linguistic knowledge were identified. They include the ability of frame structures to form a ‘vision’ of a fragment of reality in a linguaculture, integrate conceptual and linguistic knowledge into a unified single system, facilitate the integration of information into memory structures, create favourable conditions for the activation and retrieval of linguistic knowledge, create the framework for probabilistic forecasting. A comparison of these characteristics with the mechanisms and processes of linguacultural switching has shown that frame-based knowledge can increase their speed and effectiveness, especially in translation from L1 to L2 which is known to be more challenging. It is also hypothesised that the development and use of a frame knowledge base can be made more effective due to reliance on metalinguistic awareness. It provides more conscious knowledge of language, indispensable for a translator, distinctness of linguistic and cultural knowledge, competence in a language at the level of norm and usage, development of translation skills and the ability to code-switch, as well as creative thinking which allows for a more effective search and use of linguistic means. The author makes a conclusion that development of frame-based knowledge of a foreign language should be made systematic as part of professionally oriented foreign language teaching to trainee translators.
The paper presents major linguocognitive characteristics of the cultural concept AMERICAN MATERIALISM with consideration of its role in the American national linguistic worldview as well as of its evaluation dynamics. The research is carried out using the material of historical and publicistic texts devoted to American culture and mentality and through the analysis of the definitions of the word «materialism» provided in modern English language dictionaries. The study reveals the evaluative components of the given concept from both synchronic and diachronic perspectives and highlights the linguistic means which serve to verbalize the concept on the whole and its emotional-expressive side in particular. The definitional analysis also helps to single out the core semantic components of the concept AMERICAN MATERIALISM.
This article explores the ways of displaying fear in the Russian language image of the world. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, in its most usual manifestation, fear covers and paralyzes; this distressing emotion is caused by somebody, apprehension to lose something or somebody as well as by exposure to an imminent danger, evil, or similar feeling, whether real or imaginary. In the metaphoric mapping fear is defined in relation to the elements of other conceptual areas, including power, fluid, fire, etc., which determine the choice of compatible, “cognate” predicates. By analogy with a hostile force, fear covers, subordinates and subjugates; by analogy with a beast, it moves and nibbles; by analogy with fire, it burns and incinerates. Such use becomes so common that speakers do not pay attention to metaphorical expressions any more almost taking them for the objective characteristic of fear.