Летняя школа молодых ученых памяти Карла Дункера «Теоретические и прикладные проблемы когнитивной психологии»
The article describes one of the main trends in cognitive psychology — theoretical models associated with the phenomenon of embodied knowledge. We set shortcomings of the classical symbolic approach, the first theoretical approach established in cognitive psychology in 1950–70 years. The main branches of the new trend associated with embodied knowledge are described: grounded cognition, enactivism, phenomenological approach, neo-ecological approach, theory of dynamic systems. The first two of them are characterized in details.
In recent years there has been a growing interest in cognition within sociology and other social sciences. Within sociology this interest cuts across various topical subfields, including culture, social psychology, religion, race, and identity. Scholars within the new subfield of cognitive sociology, also referred to as the sociology of culture and cognition, are contributing to a rapidly developing body of work on how mental and social phenomena are interrelated and often interdependent. In The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology, Wayne H. Brekhus and Gabe Igantow have gathered some of the most influential scholars working in cognitive sociology to present an accessible introduction to key research areas in a diverse field. While classical sociological and newer interdisciplinary approaches have been covered separately by scholars in the past, this volume alternatively presents a broad range of cognitive sociological perspectives. The contributors discuss a range of approaches for theorizing and analyzing the "social mind," including macro-cultural approaches, interactionist approaches, and research that draws on Pierre Bourdieu's major concepts. Each chapter further investigates a variety of cognitive processes within these three approaches, such as attention and inattention, perception, automatic and deliberate cognition, cognition and social action, stereotypes, categorization, classification, judgment, symbolic boundaries, meaning-making, metaphor, embodied cognition, morality and religion, identity construction, time sequencing, and memory. A comprehensive look at cognitive sociology's main contributions and the central debates within the field, the Handbook will serve as a primary resource for social researchers, faculty, and students interested in how cognitive sociology can contribute to research within their substantive areas of focus.
Estes, Verges, and Barsalou (2008) reported that reading a word with a spatial connotation (e.g., sky) interfered with the subsequent identification of an unrelated visual stimulus (letter X or O) presented in a semantically related portion of the screen (location-cue congruency, or LCC, effect). In a series of nine experiments, we attempted to obtain this effect but met with no success. Rather, we obtained other expected spatial and semantic effects highlighting the robustness of our procedures. We contend that the LCC effect needs to be taken with great caution.
The article describes one of the main trends in cognitive psychology — theoretical models associated with the phenomenon of embodied cognition. Three directions of current research are analyzed within the framework of the “Embodied cognition” approach: the phenomenological approach, the theory of dynamic systems, the neo-ecological approach. In the phenomenological approach two independent directions are considered: a neurophenomenology and front-loading phenomenology. Simulation theories that occupy an intermediate position between the phenomenological approach and the “Grounded Cognition” approach are described. The key elements of the neo-ecological approach are considered, within the framework of which two directions are distinguished, each of which offers its own version of the description of perceptive-motor interaction. The first direction appeals to the concept of representation and connected with the theory of common coding. The second direction uses the concept of affordance and proposes several solutions to the problem of measuring affordance. The reason for the use of the theory of dynamic systems in cognitive psychology are considered on the example of studying the error “A-not-B” in current studies of cognitive development. The actual status of the theory of dynamical systems in cognitive studies is discussed. The conclusion gives a general description of the value and novelty of the approaches described.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.