Discordance of acculturation attitudes of the host population and their dealing with immigrants
We set out to quantitatively evaluate the discordance between perceived and desired acculturation attitudes by immigrants in Russia in the eyes of host group members and consider relationships between this discordance and other intergroup attitudes. We used the coefficient of intrarater agreement as a measure of discordance between acculturation attitudes of the host population. The host population in Russia mostly preferred an assimilation-type of adjustment of immigrants but believed that immigrants prefer separation. Discordance between acculturation attitudes can have consequences for intergroup relations. Further investigation of the discordance can help to better understand the process of mutual accommodation and the evaluation of discordance can help to enhance this accommodation.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The chapter is devoted to studying the role of social disidentification in acculturation preferences of ethnic minority and majority group members. Social disidentification refers to the active rejection and distancing oneself from a particular group. The study involved ethnic Russians living in Kabardino-Balkar Republic (KBR), North Caucasus, Russian Federation (N = 249), and the Kabardians and Balkars, who constitute the ethnic majority of Kabardino-Balkar Republic (N = 285). We measured ethnic, religious, republican, regional (North Caucasian), and national (belonging to Russian Federation) identities in both ethnic majority and minority group members as well as levels of national, regional, and republican disidentification. We used measures of acculturation strategies and expectations from the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Data processing was carried out using hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed that not only social identities affect the acculturation preferences but also social disidentification. We found that the republican disidentification of ethnic Russians in KBR was positively related to their separation and marginalization acculturation strategies and negatively related to their integration strategy. The regional disidentification of ethnic Russians in KBR was negatively related to their assimilation strategy and positively related to their marginalization strategy. The national (belonging to Russian Federation) disidentification of ethnic majority group members (Kabardians and Balkars) was positively related to their expectations of the segregation, assimilation, and exclusion of ethnic Russians and negatively related to their integration in the republic. In general, the study shows specific patterns of relationships between different types of social disidentification and acculturation preferences of majority and minority group members.
This chapter addresses changes in immigration trends and their psychosocial effects in post-Soviet Russia. Russia is currently the world’s second most populous country (after the USA) in terms of its immigrant population, with most coming from the Central Asian States (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) and China. The chapter begins with an examination of the social issues that immigrants must face. The research focuses on Moscow as the most attractive destination for immigrant workers. The chapter presents the findings of an empirical study conducted on the reciprocal acculturation between immigrants and the host society in Moscow. The study examines the correlations between the immigrants’ acculturation attitudes and the host society’s acculturation expectations and perceptions of the immigrants. More specifically, the study focuses on how measures of integral security (including physical, cultural and economic security) influence the host society’s attitudes towards immigrants.
The article represents the results of comparison of migrants’ acculturation strategies and acculturation expectations of host society in Moscow and also, their relation with satisfaction of themselves and the life. It is found, that migrants prefer separation more than host society anticipates this; host society prefers assimilation and exclusion of migrants, then migrants aim for it.
The capital region can be characterized by polyethnic composition, where both indigenous people of different nationalities and religions, and migrants, who represent almost all ethnic and religious minorities of Russia and near abroad live. In this empirical study, the role of the level of religiosity in acculturation strategies/expectations of the host population and migrants were studied. The sample contained residents of Moscow (N = 388) and migrants from Azerbaijan (N = 147). The results of the regression analysis show that higher level of religiosity in the representatives of the host population contributes to acculturation expectation of multiculturalism, while higher level of religiosity in migrants contributes to the strategy of separation choice. The results are analyzed from the position of features of ethnic/religious minority and majority acculturation.
This paper examines the similarities and differences between the relationships of ‘own’ cultural and ‘other’ cultural identities on the one hand and acculturation strategies of integration and assimilation on another hand among representatives of three generations of Russians and Ossetians, living in RNO-A. The sample included 109 grandparent-parent-adolescent triads from ethnic Russian families and 106 triads from ethnic Ossetian families (N=645). In the Russian sample we found the negative impact of ‘own’ cultural identity (Russian) on the assimilation strategy and a positive impact of ‘other’ cultural identity (Caucasian) on the integration strategy in all three generations. Among Ossetians we did not reveal any clear influence of their ‘own’ cultural identity (Ossetian) on acculturation expectations in all three generations. ‘Other’ cultural identity (Russian) of Ossetian grandparents and adolescents positively influences the acculturation expectation ‘multiculturalism’. In adolescents sample (unlike grandparents and parents) this identity also has a positive impact on the acculturation expectation ‘melting pot’. ‘Own’ cultural identity of Ossetian parents and adolescents positively influences the acculturation expectation ‘multiculturalism’. For Ossetian parents (unlike for grandparents and adolescents) their ‘own’ cultural identity negatively affects the acculturation expectation ’melting pot’. In both ethnic groups ‘own’ cultural identities promote maintainance of ‘own’ culture, and ‘other’ cultural identities help to adopt successfully in multicultural society. These results require additional verification in studies with other samples.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.