Выбытия студентов из вузов: исследования в России и США
Student withdrawal (attrition) is becoming an actual phenomenon due to demographic changes, modernization of the economy and education, especially for universities located in economically depressed areas. The tradition of research on student withdrawal is still being formed in Russia, so it is important to clarify the main terminology used for the analysis of withdrawal, to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account the specifics of Russian universities, and to specify the prospects for the elaboration of research. A review of the terminology used in international studies to study the withdrawal as well as the history of studying this phenomenon in the USA is presented. The basic concepts of withdrawal, developed in sociology, psychology, organization theory and economics, are considered. They indicate the effectiveness of accounting for a wide range of factors of differing natures in the study of withdrawal: the processes of social and academic integration, the psychological characteristics of students, the organizational characteristics of the university and educational programs. When adapting existing models to Russian higher education, it is important to take into account that compulsory withdrawal caused by academic failure of students predominates in Russian universities, while international models were created to describe voluntary withdrawal from higher education institutions. National research which can serve as the basis for the development of a model of student withdrawal from Russian universities is analyzed.
Bridging the gap between higher education research and policy making was always a challenge, but the recent calls for more evidence-based policies have opened a window of unprecedented opportunity for researchers to bring more contributions to shaping the future of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Encouraged by the success of the 2011 first edition, Romania and Armenia have organised a 2nd edition of the Future of Higher Education – Bologna Process Researchers’ Conference (FOHE-BPRC) in November 2014, with the support of the Italian Presidency of the European Union and as part of the official EHEA agenda. Reuniting over 170 researchers from more than 30 countries, the event was a forum to debate the trends and challenges faced by higher education today and look at the future of European cooperation in higher education. The research volumes offer unique insights regarding the state of affairs of European higher education and research, as well as forward-looking policy proposals. More than 50 articles focus on essential themes in higher education: Internationalization of higher education; Financing and governance; Excellence and the diversification of missions; Teaching, learning and student engagement; Equity and the social dimension of higher education; Education, research and innovation; Quality assurance, The impacts of the Bologna Process on the EHEA and beyond and Evidence-based policies in higher education.
In his paper A. V. Voevodsky analyzes the Russian-South African interaction in the sphere of the higher education. The author considers historical background of relations of two countries in this area during the Soviet period. Untill 1990 th these contacts were developed mainly through two main forces of liberation movement in apartheid era — ANC and SACP. The interaction between the Republic of South Africa and Russia in the sphere of the higher education, as well as in other areas of economic and cultural cooperation has sharply weakened with the collapse of the USSR. The number of South African students in Russia has decreased practically to zero. The introduction in 2010 of the RSA in BRICS and the signing in 2013 of the Joint Declaration on the establishment of a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the Russian Federation and the Republic of South Africa gave a new impulse to relationship between Russia and RSA. Nowadays, despite the remaining difficulties in coordination of educational policy of the two countries, we can acknowledge a revival of contacts in the sphere of the higher education with a number of bilateral agreements between the South African universities and the Russian educational and scientific organizations and a growth of number of the South African students trained at the Russian universities. In this article are reviewed possible steps of this cooperation further expansion. © https://history.jes.su/s207987840001442-5-1-en
The paper discusses the development of the organizational practices in a Russian university under the influence of the environment. In the latter, the key factors are legislation and regulations of the Ministry of education and science. This influence is ambiguous and varies in different aspects, so to understand combined effect one needs detailed analysis using purposebuilt tools. The paper introduces such tool based on ideas of business model canvas by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur and organizational design theory by Henry Mintzberg. This instrument makes it possible to conduct a system analysis of the organizational design of the university, the integrity of this design and its fit to the environmental conditions. In particular, this analysis shows, how the system of restrictions and stimuli, created by the Ministry of education and science leads to the degradation of education quality in a classic university
The main reason the so-called "crisis of education" covers not only the rap-id changes in the system of knowledge and technology, but also the changes in the labor market, the prevalence of atypical employment. As a result, the univer-sity, by definition, can not train a specialist, fully satisfying the requirements of the employer. For example, the direction of "Advertising and public relations" proposes measures to resolve the existing contradictions.
In this paper, we discuss the methods of endowment management existing in the world and their applicability to the Russian university system. The endowment spending research focuses on the following issues: reinvesting endowment income; identifying the size of expendable endowment income; using the endowment body, not onlyincome; choosing endowment spending policy, rule and rate endowments, etc. We provide an overview of endowment fund financial indicators and endowment spending allocationin Russia. Based on the example of the HSE Endowment Fund, we analyze the use of endowment spending rulesand model of financial indicators for 2008–2014. The University’s Endowment Fund endowment spending policies implement the preservation principle, which may be reasonable in a stable economy. However, the viability of the principle is questionable in the crisis, the more so since the endowment is mostly in rubles. Using net asset valuation methods, the HSE Endowment Fund could provide equity betweengenerations with annual distribution of income in favor of the next and current generations.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.