Экономика Чуда: Ротационные Кредитно-Сберегательные Ассоциации в тауншипах Йоханнесбурга
This article examines the phenomenon of South African stokvels and burial societies and the transformations these associations are currently undergoing. Drawing on the socio-culturalist analysis of economic action (Neves, du Toit, 2012: 131, van Donge, 1992), the article investigates the topic of mutuality through looking at the contemporary development on the field of rotating savings and credit associations in South Africa. The article is based on a field study conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa, during two months stay in October–November 2014, 2015, 2017. Authors claim that in the mid-2010s conventional stokvels and burial societies are becoming the characteristic feature of the ‘normalized’ life of the middle classes, whereas the representatives of the urban underclass are increasingly engaging in the digital Ponzi schemes as a means of day-to-day survival, but also in the pursuit of the magical ‘instant enrichment’.
This volume deals with one of the most understudied aspects of everyday life in Russian society. Its main heroes are the providers of goods and services to whom people turn for healthcare instead of official medical institutions. A wide range of agents is described—from network marketing companies to 'folk' journals on health as well as healers, complementary medicine specialists, and religious organizations. Krasheninnikova’s book is based on rich empirical observations and avoids both positive and critical assessment of the analyzed phenomena. Her investigation pays particular attention to the legal, social, and economic status of informal healthcare providers. She demonstrates that these agents tend to flourish in bigger towns rather than in small settlements, where public healthcare is lacking. The study reveals the important role of institutions that are generally not related to alternative medicine, such as pharmacies, libraries, and church shops. The result is a vivid and thorough introduction to the world of self-medication and alternative healing in contemporary Russia. A special emphasis was made on the flexibility of boundaries between formal and informal healthcare due to the evolution of rules and regulations.
Russian intellectual tradition gives examples of amazing scientific discoveries and insights (insights), which in the current historical period rather unexpectedly take on a second life. One of the most significant examples of this kind of renovation traditions associated with the ideological heritage of outstanding Russian scientist Pyotr Alekseyevich Kropotkin. It Kropotkin developed in the context of their historical situation the concept of cohesion, self-organizing communities of mutual aid and altruism, to express, in his opinion, the very essence of public relations in historical perspective and contemporary dynamics.
The article is devoted to police moonlighting in Russia. Despite the initial function of law regulation, in many countries police transformed in a destructive tool. In contemporary time police are highly involved in economic activity, which is embedded in business and political spheres. The authors describe the complicated intertwining of legal and illegal aspects of the activity, and bring light to fundamental causes of police moonlighting and socio-economic and political consequences of the phenomenon. The article is based on results of researches of key Russian teams in this field.
Informal practices are both accommodating and resistant to change. On the one hand, they adapt to change and serve to soften external constraints. On the other, they are grounded in informal norms and channel peer pressure within social circles
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.