The article traces the rise of anthropological approach within the history of Soviet media studies. The author examines contemporary trends and popular themes that have been studied by employing anthropological methods, and discusses the prospects for the development of anthropology of mass media as a full-fl edged research fi eld.
The article introduces the reader to the anthropology of organizations, one of the branches of contemporary applied anthropology, and discusses the specifi cities of its development; the parts that anthropologists come to play in organizations under consideration; forms of work and major themes debated in organizational research.
The digitalization of urban space makes the scholar of the city face new objectives, and not all of these objectives have to do with the mediatized objects of study that are emerging. Epistemological challenges related to the study of digital city’s hybrid space are first and foremost arising out of the need to rethink and reconceptualize the entire scope of research tools in order to reach the interdisciplinary compromise between urban studies and new media studies. The authors discuss two main approaches – those of technological centrism and anthropology – to the study of interconnections among digital culture, mobile gadgets, networks, and city space. Attention is further paid to the issues in the study of mobility in the city, that are pinpointed by adherents of both approaches. The authors argue in favor of the anthropological approach as the appropriate methodological foundation for contemporary research on urban transformations.
Bullying – harassment, intimidation and maltreatment of other (in most cases, of the weaker) members of the collective – has become the object of close attention among anthropologists, psychologists, ethologists, and sociologists in the last decades. The article shows how widespread this phenomenon is in human societies. The goal of the study is the analysis of bullying as a sociocultural phenomenon and the examination of the specificities of harassment in collectives of younger school children. The authors argue that all children of 8–10 years old are able to employ bullying techniques, although some 13% of them can be considered real bullers. The most common at that age (about 40%) are verbal types of humiliation, as the safest ones that allow the buller to get away unpunished. After them there follow the physical aggression and the moral crushing (about 20% each). Prohibitions and ostracism, which require coordinated collective action, are at the last place (about 15%). The authors indicate that in order to work out effective measures against this phenomenon, a good knowledge of the sociocultural context and an active participation of anthropologists is necessary.
We have evaluated the influence of the “traditional” and “Westernized” types of distribution of products in the “Arctic cuisine” among the Nenets women by examining the serum 25(OH)D concentration. The levels of vitamin D are high in the bodies of older women who have steady access to products of reindeer breeding owing to a specific type of food distribution within the community frequently known as gift economy. When a person is excluded from the traditional system of food distribution, the vitamin D status becomes lower. We argue that the egalitarian (“horizontal”) type of food distribution has functioned as an adaptive mechanism for sustaining nutrition and health among the indigenous people of the North.
The article is devoted to modelling the basic geographical image of the tundra in the light of the geo-space resources of Yamal and Chukotka. The key archetypes, primary signs and symbols, and symbolic spots related to the basic geo-image of the tundra are identified. The image geographical model for the basic geo-image of the tundra is constructed.
The article provides the review of the second decade of the Ethnographic museum of IEA RAS. The museum was organised in 1992. Author pays attention to the new museum acquisitions originating in different regions of Russia, European, African, and Asian countries.
The article is drawn on a study of families of migrants, having school-age children, from Central Asia. Transnational practices of migrants are closely tied to integration processes, and this is refl ected in generational differences. In some families, children that, unlike their parents, go or used to go to a Russian school, try to distance themselves from their parents’ generation, refuse to identify with it, and do not want to speak the native language of their parents. In some ways, these trends are a consequence of parentage practices that orient children toward the local social milieu and encourage the use of Russian. Despite the significance of transnational practices in the life of migrant families, the outcome of the study demonstrates the importance of examining the intergenerational dynamics in the incorporation process.
The article analyzes the relationship between the state and youth using the case of “Stal” youth movement. The research is based on the interviews with participants of the movement and ethnographic fieldwork in the annual educational camp “Seliger” and political rallies organized by the movement. The author argues that despite the movement’s loyalty to the state, young people actively redefine normative understanding of patriotism, resist the marginal image of the movement and create personal strategies of justification of the pro-governmental activism.
The origin of native Americans is one of the most intriguing issues in world history. This article presents a synthesis of environmental, geological, archaeological, biological, linguistic, and folkloric evidence relevant to this issue as well as facts concerning prehistoric art. The totality of data indicates an Asian homeland situated anywhere from the Altai-Sayan to eastern China.
The article discusses the phenomenon of interconnected glocal hospitality communities which have recently spread over the world in the context of the internet development and cultural globalization processes. It focuses on a typical community of users of CouchSurfi ng.org, a major social hospitality network in St. Petersburg. The author argues that, in the framework of this web service, there occurs a transformation of virtual groups of users localized in various spots of the globe into actual interconnected glocal communities which shape shared identities, norms, values, and practices among its members.
The article is based on the introductory part of the collection on “Material Culture and Technology in Everyday Life: Ethnographic Approaches” (2009). The author presents a brief review of concepts that have been lately employed in research on material or technological culture. He attempts to show that different disciplines do in fact use adjacent notions and concepts in thinking about materiality, and tries to delineate ways of bringing the different research traditions to a unified platform that could serve as a theoretical foundation for the complex materialistic study of technological culture.
Drawn on ten unstructured biographical interviews, the article adopts the post-subcultural approach to examine the professionalization of crafts in the context of mediaeval historical reenactments. The historical reenactment offers its participants a chance of acquiring an extraordinary transgressive experience through dressing up and practices of aestheticized violence. Nowadays, transgression is problematized and marginalized as deviant behavior. To overcome the split between the stage and real life, the actors work towards normalizing their participation in the historical reenactment and making it unproblematic and consistent with legitimate forms of socialization. Among the possible directions of normalization in the framework of historical reenactment, there is the professionalization of crafts whereby economic practices of subsistence turn into a profession, while craftsmen turn into masters.