Омоложение материнства в Дагестане: тенденция или артефакт? (Предварительные результаты обследования сельского населения)
This article is devoted to the dynamics of the mean age of child-bearing in Dagestan, an indicator which has differed significantly from the overall Russian trend within the last decade. The paper is based both on data from official sources and preliminary results from field research conducted by the authors in the rural areas of Dagestan. The data from both sources strongly supports the idea of a decrease in the childbearing age in the republic both for the mean age of childbearing (MAB) without parities and for the mean age of childbearing at first and second births.
The existing literature highlights, among others, two main factors inhibiting the increase of the MAB usually expected with a decrease of the total fertility rate. These are, first of all, the important role of religion (mainly Islam) in the society, and secondly, the “patriarchal” structure of the family. Our preliminary results lead us to the conclusion that the first factor is more important.
The article analyzes norms of spousal and parental behavior represented in Russian family law and contrasts them with the meanings young people invest in partnership, matrimony, and parenthood. Federal legislation and interviews with young middle-class residents of Saint Petersburg serve to explore similarities and differences between official discourse and young people's everyday views of their obligations and freedoms. The article discusses the applicability of the concept of a second demographic transition to gender relations in Russia. The subjects of the Russian demographic shift are young adults who, official discourse notwithstanding, base their reproductive decisions on professional, social, and economic status rather than age.
One of the key developments in 20th and 21st century history has been the demographic revolution, or demographic transition, which radically changed the course of fundamental demographic processes involving the birth rate, mortality and migration. These changes have had, and continue to have, a significant effect on all aspects of life in modern and developing societies, including their economies, social relations, culture and political life. In addition, they greatly influence the crucial sphere of international relations, and create unprecedented challenges for international security.
Demographic change affects the international situation both directly and indirectly, through the social processes experienced by all societies which embrace this change.
The Reader includes commented Russian translations of the major normative texts on Islamic and customary law in Arabic which were composed in Dagestan from the 17th through the first third of the 20th centuries. Most of these monuments were never published in Russian. A considerable part of them is kept in manuscripts in state and private collections. These works and documents show a gradual transformation of Muslim legal culture, power and society after the North Caucasus was involved in the political and legal space of tsarist and early Soviet Russia. In addition, the book includes studies on the history of Islamic justice and law in the region introducing readers into the current state of international research in this field. The focus is made on theory and practice of Islamic and customary law, treatiseas on different questions of fiqh, legal deeds and legislation/ The reader addresses first of all to undergraduate students specializing on history, law and culture of Islam in Russia. It can be used as a reference book in university courses related to particularities of Islamic and customary law in Russia as well as to a general history of Islam and Muslim societies in the colonial period in Russia and worldwide.
By means of simple AN-model of economic growth and stepwise refinement of technical progress (A), modelling of two-century transition process to Great |Divergence (nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century), then—from Divergence to Convergence (second half of the twentieth century), and at last, to the acceleration of convergence in the early twenty-first century. The forecast, calculated after this model reveals that Great Convergence will occur by 2050 and the world center of production of goods and services will shift again to China, India and other Asian countries, like it was in pre-industrial era.
The author shows that demographic transition is an organic part of civilization developments. Such phenomen as death rate and birth rate, changes in character of migration are connected with stages of development of a civilization.
The twenty-seven volume of the series "International Migration of Population: Russia and Contemporary World" is a collection of papers submitted to the Session 06-03 "The effects of migration on areas of destination" of the XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference *26031 August 2013, South Korea, Busan). The session deals with major international migration trends, increasing role of international migration in the demographic development of receiving countries.
The authors are responsible for the reliability of data and other materials used. The series is both of scientific and educational character and can be accordingly used in teaching process.
This study examines intercultural relations in the Republic of Dagestan (RD) in the North Caucasus, Russia. RD is the most multicultural and multilingual republic in the Russian Federation. The research used the hypotheses and measures developed in the MIRIPS project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Our goal was to test three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We also examined the role of a separation strategy in intercultural relations. The sample included members of the largest ethnic groups of RD: Avars (N = 100), Dargins (N = 116), Russians (N = 101) and members of other ethnic groups, such as Kumyks, Lezgins, Tabasarans, (N = 121). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic groups, and simultaneously for the whole sample. The results showed that perceived security promoted support for multicultural ideology, tolerance, and integration among the whole sample. The contact hypothesis was not supported: number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had no significant impact on tolerance and integration in the whole sample. Preference for integration promoted life satisfaction and self-esteem in the whole sample. We also found that the separation strategy was positively associated with life satisfaction among members of ethnic groups in RD.
The article gives a developed criticism of representations that in advanced countries there were steady changes in dynamics of birth rate. This contradicts theories of demographic transition. The author polemizes with the arguments of M. Kluptas article published in same number.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.